제2회 안전보건교육 강사 경진대회

Education | 2012.08.09 09:23 | Posted by 스마트 안전보건

 

안전분야 우수강사 발굴과 우수 안전교육교안 개발의 장이 될 ‘제2회 대한민국 안전교육 강사 경진대회’가 오는 11월에 펼쳐진다. 행정안전부와 소방방재청이 주최하고 안전신문이 후원하는 이번 대회는 대한민국 국민의 안전의식 제고와 범국민적인 안전문화 정착 기여 및 분야별 우수한 강사의 인력풀 구성을 위해 마련됐다. 

이번 대회의 공모 주제는 ‘국민안전 의식향상을 위한 교안’이며 공모분야는 재난안전, 생활안전, 안전문화, 아동안전, 소방안전 모두 5개 분야로 실시된다. 참가자격은 안전강의에 관심이 있는 대한민국 국민이면 누구나 가능하다. 

접수방법은 (사)한국안전교육강사협회(www.koreasafe.or.kr)에서 교안요약서를 다운로드 받아 교안 작성 요령에 따라 A4용지 20매 이내로 작성해 발표를 위한 PPT자료와 함께 이메일로(ksla055@naver.com) 접수하면 된다. 접수기간은 오는 10월 31일까지다.

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Great Learning Sources for children and teachers in summer

Education | 2012.06.03 22:01 | Posted by 스마트 안전보건

This posting must be great for kids and teachers in the summer and is originally from edtechideas.com
http://edtechideas.com/2012/06/01/49-cool-summer-sites-for-kids-and-teachers/

I will repost it here with some of interesting web sources, so that you can find more by visiting the link above.

"A good majority of northern hemisphere and international schools are winding down the 2011-2012 school year and doors will be closing as the students and teachers take off on their summer adventures. Here are a list of great sites for kids and teachers to keep you happily productive and learning this summer. These are in no way in any order of personal preference or coolness."

1. Magic Tree House


If your students like The Magic Tree House Series (and let’s be honest, who doesn’t?), they’ll love The Magic Tree House Website. Students climb up the tree and enter the tree house to find some great puzzles, fun games and quizzes on any of the 45+ MTH books.

2. Toporopa


Can’t afford that summer vacation schlepping around Europe? No worries, just pull up Toporopa on your nearest browser and learn all about the geographical, political, historical and economical aspects of the wonderful continent.

3. ReadWriteThink Printing Press


ReadWriteThink creates a lot of great educational resources. With Printing Press students can create a booklet, flyer, brochure, or newspaper fairly easily. There is a nice guide that walks you through the process and the focus is on writing. There is a place within each publication for a picture, but not one that you can add from your computer. This space is reserved for students to draw a picture after printing. I’m all for creativity, but it would be nice to have the option of adding a photo or graphic.

4. Spell With Flickr


Spell With Flickr is a simple site that allows you to enter any word and it will create a photo representation of that word using pictures from Flickr.

5. Freeology


Freeology is a fantastic resource for teachers to download pre-made, or create a plethora of free graphic organizersformscalendarscertificatesworksheets, and more!

6. Tagxedo


Tagxedo is a Wordle-esque site that allows students to create beautiful word clouds. The great thing about Tagxedo that in my opinion is where Wordle falls short is the ability for users to save their creations (without logging in) as either a jpeg or png.

7. Learn Your Tables


Learn Your Tables is a nice interactive site that allows students to practice their multiplication times tables. Learn Your Tables is ideal for introducing topics on an interactive whiteboard (not that you’ll have one over summer, but it’s good for thinking about next school year), and for extension material on individual computers or in a lab.

8. Virtual Sistine Chapel



Virtual Sistine Chapel is an amazing 360 degree interactive view of the Sistine Chapel brought to you by your friends at the Vatican. You can fly around the amazing artwork and zoom into the frescoes at a pretty decent level. This site would be great for art history and religious studies.

9. Cool Math


Probably one of my favorite math sites, Cool Math is “designed for the pure enjoyment of mathematics.” This interactive site features a plethora of fun games, puzzles, calculators, and lesson plans.

10. Science Bob


Science Bob is a fun, interactive site that has several different areas for kids to choose from. There are videos, experiments, science fair ideas, and a research help link with a plethora of fantastic links to other sites. Don’t forget to click on the “Whatever you do, Don’t click here” button (or not).

11. Grammaropolis


Grammaropolis is a fun, interactive site that helps students learn about the parts of speech.

12. Math Live


Math Live is a fantastic site to use for upper elementary students that has a plethora of cartoon math tutorials on subjects like fractions, multiplication, area and perimeter, tessellations, probability, and a variety of other topics. The glossary section is an amazing collection of math concepts animated for more solid understanding.

13. Animal Diversity Web


From the University of Michigan Museum of Zoology, the Animal Diversity Web is an online database of animal natural history, distribution, classification, and conservation biology. Students can browse the information on individual creatures from the Kingdom Animalia and find 1000s of pictures on specific animals. What’s great about the Animal Diversity Web is that students can sign up to become contributors to the website. To do this, teachers must submit a request form.

14. PDF to Word


PDF to Word is a fantastically simple site that allows you do do just what the url suggests: Convert PDF documents to fully editable Word documents. You simple go to the site, upload your pdf, select either .doc or .rtf, enter your email and click convert. PDF to Word then emails you the word file upon completion. There is no sign up necessary and the turn-around time is approximately 10 minutes.

15. E-Learning For Kids


e-Learning For Kids is a great site with some wonderful interactive learning games that are engaging and fun. Students click on their grade and then a list of games divided into subjects comes up.

Find out more at http://edtechideas.com/2012/06/01/49-cool-summer-sites-for-kids-and-teachers/

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2011년 대한민국 이러닝 산업 실태 조사 결과 보고서

Education | 2012.05.04 13:27 | Posted by 스마트 안전보건

2011년 대한민국 이러닝 산업 실태와 관련한 Survey 결과가 있어서 공유하고자 합니다.
본 실태 조사 보고서는 지식경제부와 정보통신산업진흥원에서 발간되었습니다.

원본 출처: http://www.heybears.com/2513135
제목: 2011 이러닝 산업실태 조사 요약



<사업자수>, <매출액>, <종사자수>, <해외진출>, <사업영역> 등으로 세분화된 결과가 교육계 또는 이러닝 산업계에 종사하시는 분들에게는 좋은 자료가 될 것이라 생각합니다.






















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Learning Through Web 2.0 Social Technology

Education | 2012.03.10 17:50 | Posted by 스마트 안전보건

This is my presentation about "Learning Through Web 2.0 Social Technologies" and had presented at the conference of 2012 SITE.

learning Web2.0.png

This presentation is about learning through Web 2.0 social technologies and includes 7 subtopics to present you about Web 2.0 tools and social technologies for learning purposes from trends of Web, definition and dimensions of Web 2.0 followed by characteristics and learning theories of Web 2.0, as well as finally examples and conclusion.

[slideshare id=11823365&doc=learningthroughweb2-120301164253-phpapp01]

Learning through web 2.0 social technologies

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안전분야 최고 강사를 찾아라

Education | 2011.10.12 07:57 | Posted by 스마트 안전보건

제1회 대한민국 안전교육 강사 경진대회 공모

안전분야 최고 강사를 선발하는 ‘제1회 대한민국 안전교육 강사 경진대회’가 열린다. 행정안전부, 한국산업안전보건공단, (사)한국안전교육강사협회는 국민의 안전의식 향상과 범국민 안전문화 정착을 위해 제1회 대한민국 안전교육 강사 경진대회를 마련, 이달말까지 교안을 접수받는다.

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이번 대회의 참여는 대한민국 국민이면 누구나 가능하며 국민안전 의식향상을 위한 내용을 담은 재난안전, 생활안전, 안전문화, 아동안전, 교통안전분야의 교안을 제출하면 된다. 교안은 (사)한국안전교육강사협회 홈페이지에서 제공하는 교안 작성요령에 따라 A4 용지 20매 이내로 작성, 교안요약서와 발표를 위한 PPT 자료와 함께 ksla05@naver.com으로 제출해야 한다.

심사는 협회 명강사들의 1차 교안심사, 관계 전문가들의 2차 교안심사에 이어 3차 발표심사로 진행된다.
1~3차 심사를 통해 최종 선발된 대상 1명에게는 행정안전부 장관상과 상금 200만원, 최우수상 1명에게는 한국산업안전보건공단 이사장상과 상금 100만원, 우수상 4명에게는 협회 이사장상과 상금 30만원이 수여된다.

아울러 대상과 최우수상 수상자는 대한민국 안전명강사 자격이 부여되고 (사)한국안전교육강사협회 강사로 활동하게 된다. 
한편 이번 대회와 관련 박연홍 (사)한국안전교육강사협회 이사장은 “선발된 우수강사로 인력풀을 구성해 국내 안전교육의 효율성을 극대화하기 위해 노력할 것”이라고 말했다.

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Hypothesis in quantitative research

Education | 2011.10.03 10:55 | Posted by 스마트 안전보건
Purposes of the hypothesis in quantitative research
  • Bringing information together to enable the researcher to make a tentative statement about how the variables in the study may be related
  • Stimulating a research endeavor that results in the accumulation of new knowledge
  • Providing the investigator with a relational statement
  • Providing direction to the research
  • Providing a framework for reporting the findings and conclusions of the study
    hypothesis.gif
What is a research hypothesis?
  • A hypothesis is a statement or proposition set forth as an explanation for the occurrence of some phenomenon.
  • A research hypothesis is such a statement proposed to explain or answer a research question.
  • A research hypothesis typically describes an expected difference in variables across groups, a change in variables (through time or otherwise), or an expect of one or more variables on one or more response variables.
  • It gives a prediction for the relationship(s) among the variables from the research question.
    • Example: The mean high school GPA is higher for students whose parents graduated from college than it is for students whose parents did not graduate from college.
  • Research hypotheses can be categorized as directional or non-directional
  • A directional hypothesis specifically quantitative the direction of the proposed difference / change / expect.
    • Example: Higher doses of a current anti-depressant cause blood pressure to decrease.
  • A non-directional hypothesis does not quantify the direction of the proposed difference / change / expect.
    • Example: There is a difference in typical participation in college
Why construct a research hypothesis
A research hypothesis gives direction to the research process.
  • Provides a testable statement for the researcher
  • Provides a framework for explanations and conclusions of the study
  • Provides a clear indication of the intention and utility for the audience
Suggestions for deriving hypotheses
  • Inductive hypothesis: To formulate a hypothesis as a generalization from apparent observed relationships
  • Deductive hypothesis: To deduct a hypothesis as a generalization from existing theories
Characteristics of Hypothesis
  • Clarity (One relationship at a time)
    • An effective research hypothesis makes clear the expected relationships between variables.
    • Example: Parental involvement in school is associated with an increase in GPA. (Good)
  • Testability
    • An effective hypothesis can be tested through observation.
    • Often this requires operational definitions of constructs outside the hypothesis itself.
    • Example: A daily dose of Ritalin will increase signs of attentive behavior more than a daily placebo. (Good)
  • Consistency
    • An effective hypothesis represents a consistent extension of current knowledge.
    • Example: Male high school students respond poorly to group exercises because they cannot develop empathy. (Not Good)
  • Simplicity
    • An effective hypothesis is stated as simply as possible.
    • State the variables of interest and a proposed relationship.
      If multiple relationships are suspected, state multiple hypotheses
Types of hypotheses
  • Research Hypothesis
    • A hypothesis from observation, the literature, and/or the theory in the study
    • A research hypothesis states the relationship one expects to fine as a result of the research
  • Null Hypothesis
    • A statistical hypothesis is the same as the null hypothesis, because it states that there is no relationship between the variables in the study
    • A Null Hypothesis is a hypothesis corresponding to the research hypothesis that proposes no relationship is present.
    • Null hypotheses are not reported in research proposals or final conclusions
    • Null hypotheses do not represent an expected outcome
    • The null hypothesis and research hypothesis are mutually exclusive
    • The null hypothesis is never accepted!!!
  • Alternative Hypothesis
    • This hypothesis explains what the alternative hypothesis is.
    • "Children taught by individual instruction will exhibit less mastery of mathematical concepts than those taught by group instruction."
    • For the purposes of statistical testing, the research hypothesis is often referred to as the alternative hypothesis, denoted H1 or Ha
      • Example: Do males and females participate in academic extracurricular activities at different rates?
      • H0: Males and females participate in academic extracurricular activities at the same rate.
      • Ha: Males participate in academic extracurricular activities at a lower rate than females.
Testing the hypothesis
Idea: Collect data to determine whether the null hypothesis can be rejected in favor of the research hypothesis.
Reject the null in favor of the alternative only if the observed evidence is suciently strong that the unusual observations cannot be due to chance
  1. State the expected relationship(s) among variables, the research hypothesis
  2. State the corresponding null hypothesis
  3. Select an experiment that will have an expected outcome if the null hypothesis is true
  4. Collect and analyze data
  5. If the data are sufficiently unusual according to expectations, reject the null hypothesis in favor of the alternative hypothesis
Quantitative research plan
  1. Problem
  2. Hypothesis
  3. Methodology
  4. Data collecting
  5. Data analysis

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The Era of Online Textbook (PDF/EPUB)

Education | 2011.09.22 06:03 | Posted by 스마트 안전보건

This is a great article about the era of Online Textbook in the future such as PDF, Epub, and so on. 
This info graphic from online education.net shows us that almost all the textbooks or general books in the near future will be published only into online versions. For example, Korea is pursuing a huge project on converting all books to online versions by 2015 and it then will be 2 billion online books. What a magnificent project it is.

rUIe.png

Read more about the article and info graphic….

As someone who has just bought an iPad, I can personally appreciate its potential to become the dominant force in the digital book wars.  PDF and ePub files can be uploaded instantly, and then annotated with your stylus pen or finger.  Let’s face it, if you were a student, what would you rather have?  10 heavy textbooks or a thin much lighter iPad?  According to this infographic by OnlineEducation,  1 in 4 students would prefer digital books so much that they would give up sex for a month in order to get them.  Now there’s some dedicated fans for you…….

digital-textbooks.jpg

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Defining Mission, Vision, Goal, and Objective of Project

Education | 2011.09.17 15:37 | Posted by 스마트 안전보건

Mission, Vision, Goal, and Objectives of a Project

Defining the Problem
  • The way you define a problem determines how you will solve it, so it is critical that a proper definition be developed.
  • People sometimes define a problem as a goal. A goal in itself is not a problem. It is when there are obstacles that make it difficult to reach the goal that one has a problem. Given this definition of a problem, we can say that problem solving involves finding ways to deal with obstacles: They must be overcome, bypassed, or removed.
Confusion of Terms
  • Suppose a person tells you that she is taking a new job in a distant city, and she plans to move there. She immediately realizes that she must find a place to live. So she says, “I have a problem. I have to find a place to live.”
  • A problem is a gap. The gap between where you are and where you want to be, with

  • obstacles existing that prevent easy movement to close.
  • So if you ask her, “What kind of place are you looking for?” she can tell you. “It needs to have three bedrooms, the house must be of a certain size, and I prefer a certain style,” she says. This is her vision for the kind of place she wants to live in.
  • Her mission, then, is to find a place that conforms to her vision. Another way to say this is that the mission of a project is always to achieve the vision.

8SLrd


The Real Mission of Every Project
I said earlier that the mission is always to achieve the vision. However, I should add that the vision you are trying to achieve is the one the customer holds. Another way to say this is that you are trying to satisfy the customer’s needs.

The mission of the project can be written by answering two questions:
1. What are we going to do?
2. For whom are we going to do it?

Developing Project Objectives
  • Once a mission statement has been developed, you can write your project objectives.
  • Note that objectives are much more specific than the mission statement itself and define results that must be achieved in order for the overall mission to be accomplished.
The following acronym may help you remember the essential qualities that a statement of objectives must have. We say that an objective must be SMART, each letter standing for a condition as follows:
Specific
Measurable
Attainable
Realistic
Time-limited
  • An objective specifies a desired end result to be achieved. A task is an activity performed to achieve that result. An objective is usually a noun, whereas a task is a verb.
  • I have found the following two questions to be useful both in setting objectives and in monitoring progress toward those objectives:
  • What is our desired outcome? This is called the outcome frame and helps keep you focused on the result you are trying to achieve, rather than on the effort being expended to get there.
  • How will we know when we achieve it? I call this the evidence question.
  • This question is very useful for establishing exit criteria for objectives that cannot be quantified.
  • I consider an objective to be a statement that tells me what result is to be achieved.
  • The simplest way to conduct a risk analysis is to ask, “What could go wrong?” or “What could keep us from achieving our objective?”
  • It is usually best to list the risks first, then think about contingencies for dealing with them.
It is helpful to assess risks of failure of the following:
  • The schedule
  • The budget
  • Project quality
  • Customer satisfaction

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Key Points to Remember
  1. The way a problem is defined determines how you will solve it.
  2. A problem is a gap between where you are and where you want to be, with obstacles making it hard to reach the goal. A goal by itself is not a problem. Obstacles must exist for there to be a problem.
  3. Vision is what the final result will “look like.” It defines “done.”
  4. The mission is to achieve the vision. It answers the two questions “What are we going to do?” and “For whom are we going to do it?”
  5. Objectives should be SMART.
  6. You can identify risks by asking, “What could go wrong?”

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Planning the Project (Project Management)

Education | 2011.09.17 15:22 | Posted by 스마트 안전보건

Chapter 3. Planning the project

There are two barriers to good planning. The first is prevailing paradigms, and the second is the nature of human beings.

A paradigm is a belief about what the world is like. You can tell what people believe by watching what they do, because they always behave consistently with their deeply held beliefs.

The second reason that people don’t plan is that they find the activity painful. Some individuals, especially engineers and programmers, are concerned that they will be held to estimates of task durations that they have made using their best guesses.



The word control has two connotations

One meaning of the word is power and domination. In management, this is sometimes called the command-and-control approach, which in its worst form degenerates into the use of fear and intimidation to get things done.
The second meaning of control is highlighted in the extracted quotation.

Control is exercised by comparing where you are to where you are supposed to be so that corrective action can be taken when there is a deviation.


Further note that two things are necessary for control to exist. First, you must have a plan that tells where you are supposed to be in the first place.

Second, if you don’t know where you are, you can’t have control. As the second quotation says, knowing where you are isn’t as easy as it may seem, especially in doing knowledge work.


Planning defined
Planning is quite simply answering the questions shown in Figure 3-2.

Strategy, Tactics, and Logistics

To plan a project properly, you must attend to three kinds of activities that may have to be performed during the life of the job. These are strategy, tactics, and logistics.Strategy refers to the overall method you will employ to do the job, sometimes referred to as a “game plan.”

Too often planners choose a project strategy because “it has always been done that way,” rather than because it is best. You should always ask yourself, “What would be the best way to go about this?” before you proceed to do detailed implementation planning.

Implementation Planning

Once you have decided to build boats upside down, you must work out all of the details of how it will be done.


Logistics

Military people can quickly tell you the benefit of attention to logistics. You can’t fight a battle if people have no ammunition, food, clothing, or transportation. It is logistics that attends to these things.


Plan Ingredients

Following are the minimum ingredients that should be contained in a project plan.

  • Problem statement.

  • Project mission statement (see chapter 3 for instructions on how to develop a mission statement).

  • Project objectives (see chapter 3).

  • Project work requirements, including a list of all deliverables, such as reports, hardware, software, and so on. It is a good idea to have a deliverable at each major project milestone so that progress can be measured more easily.

  • Exit criteria. Each milestone should have criteria established that will be used to determine whether the preceding phase of work is actually finished. If no deliverable is provided at a milestone, then exit criteria become very important.

  • End-item specifications to be met: This means engineering specifications, architectural specs, building codes, government regulations, and so on.

  • Work Breakdown Structure (WBS). This is an identification of all of the tasks that must be performed in order to achieve project objectives. A WBS is also a good graphic portrayal of project scope (see chapter 6).

  • Schedules (both milestone and working schedules should be provided; see chapters 6 and 7).

  • Required resources (people, equipment, materials, and facilities). These must be specified in conjunction with the schedule (see chapters 5 and 6).

  • Control system (see chapters 8 and 9).

  • Major contributors. Use a Linear Responsibility Chart for this (see chapter 5).

  • Risk areas with contingencies when possible
Sign-Off of the Plan

A signature means that the individual is committed to his contribution, agrees with the scope of work to be done, and accepts the specs as valid.

The plan should be signed in a project plan review meeting, People should be encouraged to “shoot holes in the plan” during the review meeting, rather than wait until problems develop later on.


Changing the Plan

It would be nice to think that a plan, once developed, would never change. However, that is unrealistic. No one has 20/20 foresight. Unforeseen problems are almost certain to arise. The important thing is to make changes in an orderly way, following a standard change procedure.

  • Changes should be made only when a significant deviation occurs. A significant change is usually specified in terms of percent tolerances relative to the original targets.

  • Change control is necessary to protect everyone from the effects of scope creep—changes to the project that result in additional work.

  • Causes of changes should be documented for reference in planning future projects. The causes should be factual, not blame-and-punishment statements.

Suggestions for Effective Planning
  • Plan to plan. It is always difficult to get people together to develop a plan. This means that an agenda must be prepared, the meeting should be time-limited to the degree possible, and people should be kept on track.

  • The people who must implement a plan should participate in preparing it.

  • The first rule of planning is to be prepared to re-plan. Unexpected obstacles will undoubtedly crop up and must be handled.

  • Because unexpected obstacles will crop up, always conduct a risk analysis to anticipate the most likely ones.

  • Develop Plan B just in case Plan A doesn’t work. The simple way to do a risk analysis is to ask, “What could go wrong?” This should be done for the schedule, work performance, and other parts of the project plan.
  • Begin by looking at the purpose of doing whatever is to be done. Develop a problem statement. All actions in an organization should be taken to achieve a result, which is another way of saying “solve a problem.”

  • Use the Work Breakdown Structure (discussed in chapter 5) to divide the work into smaller chunks for which you can develop accurate estimates for duration, cost, and resource requirements.
Project Planning Steps

The basic planning steps are as follows. Note that some of these topics are covered in the next chapter.

  • Define the problem to be solved by the project.

  • Develop a mission statement, followed by statements of major objectives.

  • Develop a project strategy that will meet all project objectives.

  • Write a scope statement to define project boundaries (what will and will not be done).

  • Develop a Work Breakdown Structure (WBS).

  • Using the WBS, estimate activity durations, resource requirements, and costs (as appropriate for your environment).

  • Prepare the project master schedule and budget.

  • Decide on the project organization structure—whether matrix or hierarchical (if you are free to choose).

  • Set up the project notebook.

  • Get the plan signed off by all project stakeholders.
Key Points to Remember

If you have no plan, you have no control.

  • The people who must execute a plan should participate in preparing it.

  • Have the plan signed off in a meeting, not by sending it through the interoffice mail.

  • Keep all project documentation in a project notebook.

  • Use exit criteria to determine when a milestone has actually been achieved.

  • Require that changes to the project plan be approved before making them.

  • Risk management should be part of all project planning.

  • A paradigm is a belief about what the world is like.

  • Planning is answering the “who, what, when, and how” questions.

  • Logistics refers to supplying people with materials and supplies they need to do their jobs.

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What is a literature review?

Education | 2011.09.16 05:09 | Posted by 스마트 안전보건
What is a literature review?
  1. A literature review is a process of surveying sources, both published and unpublished, relevant to the research interest.
  2. This is a process that typically continues throughout the research process.
  3. The reporting of reviewed literature is often considered part of this process.
Roles of related literature
  1. Knowledge of related research enables investigators to define the frontiers of their field.
  2. A thorough review of related theory and research enables researchers to place their questions in perspective.
  3. Reviewing related literature helps researchers to limit their research question and to clarify and define the concepts of the study.
  4. Through studying related research, investigators learn which methodologies have proven useful and which seem less promising.
  5. A thorough search through related research avoids unintentional replication of previous studies.
  6. The study of related literature places researchers in a better position to interpret the significance of their own results.
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Why perform a literature review?

  1. Learn the known and unknown of an area of interest
  2. Identify areas of consensus and debate
  3. Familiarize with previous designs, surveys, tests, analyses
  4. See current trends in research
Quantitative Research:
  • Identify current endpoints of knowledge and cater specific research questions to this perspective
  • Identify appropriate methodologies
  • Judge the significance of research from the perspective of your field
Qualitative Research:
  • Identify literature that has already inspired the research
  • Search the literature of a similar study from a different field
  • Postpositivist: do not allow a literature review to influence your observations.
  • Instead review similar work after your study is complete
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How do we perform a literature review?

One type of sources:
  • Primary Sources
  • Secondary Sources
Primary Sources report original research.
  • Refereed / Peer Reviewed Journals
  • Non-Refereed Journals
  • Original Presentations
Secondary Sources summarize, review, or discuss original research from other sources.
  • Textbooks
  • Monographs
  • Encyclopedias
  • Handbooks

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Another type of sources

  • Formal Sources
  • Informal Sources
Formal Sources are published works of research.
  • Journal Articles
  • Dictionaries
  • Thesauri
  • Encyclopedias
  • Textbooks
Informal Sources are not published in the usual sense.
  • Technical Reports
  • Conference Proceedings
  • Pre-Prints
  • Symposia
  • Theses
  • Dissertations
Some common sources for references:
  • Online Searches
  • Database
  • Aggregate Collection
  • Citation Index
  • Print Journals
  • Textbooks
  • Tests in Print

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Online Search: General Process

  • Identify keywords
  • Perform a logical search for titles
  • Collect relevant abstracts
  • Review the full text if needed
Online Search: Options
  1. ERIC (Educational Resources Information Center) - www.eric.ed.gov
  2. PsycINOF - www.apa.org/psycinfo
  3. Professional development collection - www.ebscohost.com/thisTopic.php?topicID=123&marketID=1
  4. Academic search premier - www.ebscohost.com/thisMarket.php?marketID=1
  5. Web of knowledge - www.isiwebofknowledge.com
  6. JSTOR - www.jstor.org
  7. Google scholar - scholar.google.com
  8. WorldCat - www.worldcat.org
Other Sources:
  1. Social Science Citation Index
  2. American Educators' Encyclopedia
  3. International Dictionary of Education
  4. Thesaurus of ERIC Descriptors
  5. Proquest Digital Dissertation
  6. Tests in Print (Myrphy et al. 2002)
Tips for searches:
  • Record Everything!
  • Move from secondary sources (textbooks) to primary sources
  • (articles) as more detail is needed
  • Move from newer sources to older sources
General Strategies
  • Carefully construct a concise research question
  • Identify important concepts (keywords)
  • Create synonyms for important concepts (keywords)
  • Carefully check coverage of databases
  • Choose types of sources and time periods
Criteria of determining the quality of online journals
  1. Reputation of the journal
  2. Stringency of its editorial policies
  3. Reporting of primary research, as opposed to feature articles synthesizing or summarizing bodies of research for the lay audience
  4. Use of blind reviews
  5. Reputation of its reviewers
  6. Journal's affiliation with distinguished learned societies
  7. The presence or absence of advertising
  8. Audience for which the journal is intended
Organizing the related literature
  1. Begin reading the most recent studies in the field and then work backward through earlier volumes.
  2. Read the abstract or summary sections of a report first to determine whether it is relevant to the question.
  3. Before taking notes, skim the report quickly to find those sections that are related to the question.
  4. Make notes on file cards, in a word processing program, or in some format that can be accessed easily or moved around to cluster with other notes on related research
  5. Write out a separate complete bibliographic reference for each work. For the sake of record keeping, include the reference in the bibliography list and with the individual note card with the notes on the source.
  6. To facilitate sorting and organizing, do not put more than on reference on each page, entry, or card.
  7. Be sure to indicate which parts of the notes are direct quotations from author and which are your own paraphrases.
  8. If you searched online databases, keep the search strategies on file.

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