5 best practices for training professionals

Education | 2011.05.18 07:27 | Posted by 스마트 안전보건

With the current economic downturn and signs of an emerging recovery, executives are trying to determine how to best use their organizations’ funds and resources. This may mean down- sizing human resource departments and eliminating positions for training personnel. Villachica & Stepich (2010) offer five strategies drawn from the professional literature to survive these and future trying times:

(1) align efforts with organizational missions and business goals,

(2) use training only when it addresses a gap between existing and desired performance arising from a lack of requisite skill,

(3) craft instructional objectives that describe exemplary job perfor- mance,

(4) create sound training programs that promote learning and transfer to the job, and

(5) collaborate with sponsors and other stakeholders outside the training department to pro- mote transfer of training to the job.

Training personnel who employ these strategies successfully may be able to answer executives’ common question, ‘‘What have you done for me recently that matters?’’

These practices will help executives determine their returns on training investments, managers see on-the-job behavioral change that leverages the performance of exemplary personnel, and trainees confidently apply relevant skills and knowledge to the workplace. Executives, managers, and trainees who see the value of the training they complete will be less likely to cut training budgets and eliminate the positions of training professionals.

1. Aligning Training With Strategic Business Objectives

2. Closing Skill Gaps

Phillips and Phillips’s (2002) second most common reason for the failure of training and development programs lay in a failure to recognize nontraining solutions. There is little or no payoff for developing and implementing the wrong solution, and in a variety of performance gaps, a lack of skill or knowledge is not the underlying cause.

Table above depicts both the BEM and the relative frequencies Dean obtained for each of the potential causes of a performance gap. Dean’s results indicated that causes other than a lack of skill and knowledge account for 89.4% of all performance gaps, with environmental causes alone accounting for 75.6%. Training is the appro- priate solution for closing a performance gap only when the cause lies in a lack of required skill or knowledge—about 10% of the time.

As over 45% of all potential gaps arise from a lack of information (data and knowledge), training professionals need to determine whether information to close performance gaps should reside in the environment, where people could access the directions they need to perform their tasks using a job aid, a tool, or some sort of performance support that acts as ‘‘a repository for information, processes, and perspectives that inform and guide planning and action’’ (Rossett & Schafer, 2007, p. 2) or the heads of performers, where people access internalized skills and knowledge learned in training and recalled from memory. Organizations that use job aids or performance support to address performance gaps arising from a lack of access to data can obtain desired performances without incurring costly training development, delivery, and maintenance costs.


<A flow chart for determining whether a job-aid or training is appropriate>

Harless also notes one exception to this rule: the use of quasi-training in situations where preparing and distributing a job aid has not met with as much success as introducing it in training sessions describing when and how to use the job aid in the workplace. Such quasi-training focuses on providing trainees with practice using the job aids to complete job tasks and showing howabsence of aids hinders work performance. Such quasi-training requires less time to create, deliver, and maintain than training to build fluent job performance based on recall of learned skill and knowledge.


<Illustration of outcomes in mind for a training request>

Every training request should undergo some sort of front-end analyses (Hale, 2007; Harless, 1973; Robinson & Robinson, 2008; Rossett, 1987, 2009; Rummler, 2007) to do the following:
~ Specify the gap between existing and desired performance using measurable terms.
~ Align the gap with the organization’s business goals or mission.
~ Determine whether the gap is worth closing.
~ Determine whether the gap arises from a lack of skill and knowledge rather than environmental or other potential causes.
~ Use training to address skill gaps or create appropriate nontraining performance improvement solutions (or partner with those outside the training department who can).

The mere existence of regulatory requirements does not free training departments from their obligation to conduct front-end analyses. In these situations, training personnel tasked with providing mandated training would still be wise to conduct a front-end analysis for the following reasons:
~ Aligning the required training with relevant regulations, as well as organizational missions and business goals.
~ Framing training within a larger context of exemplary job performance that includes nontraining solutions that work together to create organizational cultures and work environments that remove potential barriers to compliant behavior.
~ Focusing training on job skills that need continuous practice to be maintained or involve complex problem solving.
~ Identifying opportunities for job aids, cross-training, and modularization to minimize time spent in training while still meeting due diligence requirements.


3. Job-Focused Instructional Objectives

Mager (1962) contended that instructional objectives should consist of three parts:

~ A behavior specifying what trainees are able to do to demonstrate achievement of the objective.

~ Conditions specifying what is imposed on trainees when they are demonstrating their mastery of the objective.

~ Criteria specifying how well trainees should be able to demonstrate their achievement of the objective.


<Congruence of Performance, Condition, and Criteria of an instructional objectives>

Training professionals then use information from the task analysis to craft instructional objectives. In training situations, each component of the instructional objectives should have a distinct job focus:

~ Performance: What should people do on the job to perform in the same way that the organization’s exemplars do?

~ Conditions: Under what circumstances will they do that on the job (including cues that tell exemplarswhento perform and the resources they use)?

~ Criteria: What defines doing work well on the job (the standards that exemplary performance meets to close the skill gap and meet the organization’s mission and business goals)
3 roles of job-focused objectives

First, they act as a contractamongthe training professionalswhocreated them, the training sponsor, and the training stakeholders.

Second, job-focused instructional objectives act as a compass for instructional designers who are creating lean and effective training.

Third, job-focused objectives facilitate the transfer of learned performance to the job. 

Thorndike andWoodworth (1901) argued that the transfer of learning is a function of the number of identical elements between two environments. Their findings indicate that the greater the number of shared elements, the more transfer will occur. Training professionals promote transfer of learning when they create learning environments that resemble the job—the closer, the better. This rule ofthumbappears in the military adage, ‘‘Fight like you train and train like you fight.’’

<Job-focused instructional objectives for trainees in 4 working settings>

4. Creating sound training programs

Johann Friedrich Herbart (1776–1841) developed a five-step teaching sequence based on his methods (Clark, 1999):

1. Prepare the pupils to be ready for the new lesson
2. Present the new lesson.

3. Associate the new lesson with ideas studied earlier.

4. Use examples to illustrate the lesson’s major points.

5. Test pupils to ensure they had learned the new lesson.

Gagne´ (1988, p. 11) formulated nine events of instruction:

1. Gaining attention.
2. Informing the learner of the objective.

3. Stimulating recall of prior learning.

4. Presenting the stimulus.

5. Providing learning guidance.

6. Eliciting the performance.

7. Giving informative feedback.

8. Assessing performance.

9. Enhancing retention and transfer

Merrill and colleagues (Merrill, 2002; Merrill, Barclay, & van Schaak, 2007) identified five underlying prescriptive principles of learning. Each corresponds to a phase of Merrill’s instructional sequence, with further guidance for each phase provided by specific corollaries.

<Merrill's Five Principles of Learning>


5. Looking outside the training department

Training professionals should collaborate with sponsors and other stakeholders outside the training program in ways that promote transfer to the job.
Georgenson (1982) estimated that only 10% of the information presented in training results in behavioral change on the job. In a study of 150 organizations, Saks and Belcourt (2006) reported that 62%, 44%, and34% of employees apply training on the job immediately, six months, and one year after training. This suggests that transfer of training to the job is complex.

Both Broad and Newstrom (1992) and Milheim (1994) suggested a variety of pretraining, training, and posttraining activities that facilitate transfer and persistence of newly learned skills on the job. As one example of collaboration, Broad andNewstrom (1992) describe a transfer partnership involving managers, trainers, and trainees ‘‘who have a strong interest in a particular trainingprogramandwhohave agreed toworktogether to support the full application of the training to the job’’ (p. 14).

Including different levels of management represents another change. For example, supervisors may need to adjust schedules to accommodate training attendance and revise productivity expectations to allow trainees to apply what they learned in training to the job. Supervisors may need to assist trainees with course selection and enforce course prerequisites. Line managers who are funding training efforts may need to provide release time and incentives for exemplary performers to share their skills with the training developers who are conducting task analyses. Managers may also need to provide resources for the collection and analysis of level 3 and 4 evaluation data. Executives may need to see aggregated training data to gauge the overall returns on their training investments relative to their competitors and to organizations’ strategic directions.

This kind of collaboration requires training professionals to look for opportunities to work with executives, managers, supervisors, and trainees to ensure that training transfers from the classroom to the job to the bottom line.


Moving from order takers to partners in improved job performance will require training personnel to adopt appropriate short- and longer-term strategies. In the short term, training personnel could focus on seizing opportunities involving low complexity and risks that offer large organizational returns.
One tactic may be to cut any training not directly aligned with organizational missions or business goals. Another tactic could be eliminating or minimizing training by providing job aids or online performance support (Rossett & Schafer, 2007). By closing gaps in performance arising from a lack of access to data or tools, this tactic places necessary standards, guidance, feedback, process, and tools in the job environment rather than in the long-termmemoryof the learner. A third tactic is to look for opportunities to partner with the organization’s information technology (IT) group to eliminate or minimize training by creating online performance support.

In the longer term, completing the move from order taker to performance partner requires training personnel to reposition their efforts to focus on performance improvement. Seen this way, training becomes one of a variety of approaches for meeting this goal, a special case of improving workplace performance. Part of the long-term strategy will require training professionals to upgrade theirownskill sets andfindopportunities to employ them in ways that focus on performance. Most of these opportunities should address identifying and removing environmental barriers, as Dean (1997) suggests they are the sources of some 76% of gaps between existing and desired performance. Other strategies are to create effective blends of performance-based training for gaps that truly result from a lack of skill or knowledge and then partner with supervisors and managers in ways that facilitate transfer and measurably improved job performance. Still other long-term strategies involve institutionalizing exemplary performance throughout the organization. These strategies would partner training personnel, executives, line managers, supervisors, exemplary performers, novices, and others in ways that create a culture of sustainable excellence throughout the organization.


Source: Surviving Troubled Times: Five Best Practices for Training Professionals by Villachica & Stepich, 2010

이 글은 스프링노트에서 작성되었습니다.

Presentation of a concept car with Augmented Reality

Creativity | 2011.05.14 02:03 | Posted by 스마트 안전보건

A German Partner Kreativagentur Thomas did  something smart, successful (host and guests were overwhelmingly inspired and happy) and maybe comparable to an event previosuly described. And I also repeat myself: get in touch and let them touch…  So, the acengcy invited their existing and potential partners and customers to experience new technologies live and direct, which are influencing the communication process of manufacturers and brands these days. After a day full of speeches and demos dealing with social media, print to web and of course augmented reality the absolute highlight was the concept car presentation for Molitor Racing Systems GmbH, competitors in the Porsche Mobile1 Supercup and the Porsche Carrera-Cup.

Kreativagentur Thomas designed the complete vehicle beginning with the first drafts and 3D renders to the finished model. At the same time, they prepared the data for several kiosk applications and an iPhone and Android app based on metaio’s Unifeye platform. At the launch event, the interactive prototype concept car was presented on touch screens via Augmented Reality. Attendees of the event could then also configure and adjust the car’s paint scheme and appearance. Please find the application and the handsome metaio racing team below:

Source: http://augmentedblog.wordpress.com/

Augmented Reality in Marketing

Creativity | 2011.04.09 21:00 | Posted by 스마트 안전보건

증강현실이 비즈니스 마케팅 분야에서 활발하게 확장되고 있는 것 같습니다. 저는 개인적으로 증강현실은 Education and Training 분야에 활용하는 것에 관심을 가지고 있는데 역시 돈이 있고 돈이 되는 분야인 Business Marketing 분야에서 활발하게 활용되고 있네요.

1. GoldRun (GR)

GoldRun App은 앱 스토어에서 다운로드 받으시면 됩니다. 기본적으로 다운로드를 받으신 후 골드런을 통해 올라온 광고를 보고 마음에 드시는 광고를 선택

해서 팔로우 (Follow)를 하게 됩니다. 그리고 팔로우한 광고를 보게 되면 종료기간이 있는데 그것을 잘 보시고 해당 위자드의 퀘스트 (Quest)를 잘 읽어봐야 합니다. 그 다음에 해당 퀘스트가 요구하는 대로 돌아다니면서 해당 광고의 사진이 들어간 사진을 촬영 후 공유, 업로드 하여 보상 (Reward)를 받게되는 것입니다.




2. KIA Optima

기아 옵티마 Augmented Reality는 더 간단합니다. 앱스토어를 통해 기아 옵티마 앱을 다운로드 받으신 후 잡지나 TV 광고에서 볼 수 있는 기아 로고를 촬영하시면 바로 옵티마 자동차가 등장해서 여러가지 스펙을 볼 수 있습니다. 먼저 앱 스토어에서 'KIA Optima AR'을 다운로드, 설치 하신 후 실행하셔서 아래의 기아 로고를 촬영해 보면 기아 옵티마 증강현실을 볼 수 있습니다.



이 글은 스프링노트에서 작성되었습니다.

Augmented Reality in product marketing

Creativity | 2011.03.25 21:51 | Posted by 스마트 안전보건

Augmented Reality is just around us. It is now used for business marketing by companies. Axe, launched a new product recently, are promoting it by using Augmented Reality.


Have a look. This is how it works.

To give some power to his last campaign called Provocation, brand Axe, or rather its counterpart across the Channel Lynx has created a digital device in London's Victoria Station. The idea simply resumed advertising east to land virtually angels alongside boys provocative or not.스크린샷_2011-03-25_오전_6.36.44.png
Ground is placed a sticker asking that Axe falls on to look up. Looking up, he discovers a giant screen projecting his image. Seconds later came the angels of heaven land (actually increased) at his side.

The idea is very simple, does little more than something that the advertisement (apart from the fact of living in a virtual scene) but happens to be technically very efficient.
Augmented reality where you have to leave his cell phone, download an application, place the phone on a marker to see a virtual content onto a screen of 3.5 inches.

이 글은 스프링노트에서 작성되었습니다.

Business database building

Education | 2011.02.23 10:26 | Posted by 스마트 안전보건
What is wrong with flat files?


Multiple value problems - many supplier of ordered item

Update anomalies- change ph#

Insertion anomalies - new supplier

Deletion anomalies - delete supplier

Relational Database

Two or more tables that are linked together through common fields

Each table in can be joined with more than one table

Each row called a tuple

Each column has an allowable set of values called a domain



Entity Relationship modeling

A database is a collection of entities

Entities contain properties called attributes - example - “title” for books

Relationship relate entity classes

▫ Book is writtenBy an Author


Purpose of Attributes

Describe important properties of entity

Help uniquely identify individual entities

▫ this is the primary key

▫ publisher id number, customer id number

Describe relationship between entities in different entity classes

Entity models to Relational Databases

We implement the abstract ER model to create a concrete database

▫ entity classes transform to relations

▫ attributes transform to fields

▫ entity sets transform to rows or tuples in relations

▫ one-to-many relationships modeled with foreign keys

▫ many-to-many relationships modeled with new table schemes



Design Phase I: Create ER Diagram
Identify the entity 
Identify the A++ attribute - the primary key 
Identify relationships 
Identify cordinality
1 to many
many to many

e.g., Runner and Race
Runners participate races (many to many relationship)
A runner receives prizes (one to many relationship)


Design Phase II: Create table structure
Entities - tables
Attributes - columns
1 to many relationships

Many to many relationships


이 글은 스프링노트에서 작성되었습니다.

'Education' 카테고리의 다른 글

Typography (Typeface)  (0) 2011.02.26
4 basic design principles  (0) 2011.02.25
Business database building  (0) 2011.02.23
2011 Horizon Report (Ed. Tech.)  (0) 2011.02.19
TechTrends journal  (0) 2011.02.19
Relational Database Fundamentals  (0) 2011.02.18

Relational Database Fundamentals

Education | 2011.02.18 06:31 | Posted by 스마트 안전보건

Relational (Tables) Database Fundamentals
   * Information is everywhere in an organization   
   * Information is stored in databases 
   * Database – maintains information about
      * various types of objects (inventory),
      * events (transactions),
      * people (employees),
      * places (warehouses)   
   * Database models include: 
      * Hierarchical database model 
      * Network database model  
      * Relational database model
         * stores information in the form of logically related two-dimensional tables 

Entities and Attributes
   * Entity – a person, place, thing, transaction, or event about which information is stored 
      * The rows in each table contain the entities 
      * In Figure 6.5 CUSTOMER includes Dave’s Sub Shop and Pizza Palace entities   
   * Attribute (field, column) – characteristics or properties of an entity class 
      * The columns in each table contain the attributes 
      * In Figure 6.5 attributes for CUSTOMER include Customer ID, Customer Name, Contact Name


Keys and Relationships
Primary keys and foreign keys identify the various entities (tables) in the database 
   * Primary key – a field (or group of fields) that uniquely identifies a given entity in a table 
   * Foreign key – a primary key of one table that appears an attribute in another table and acts to provide a logical relationship among the two tables 


Relational Database Advantages
   * Increased flexibility 
   * Increased scalability and performance 
   * Reduced information redundancy 
   * Increased information integrity (quality) and information security 


Relational Database Disadvantages
   * High cost
   * Specialized staff
   * Increased vulnerability


이 글은 스프링노트에서 작성되었습니다.

'Education' 카테고리의 다른 글

2011 Horizon Report (Ed. Tech.)  (0) 2011.02.19
TechTrends journal  (0) 2011.02.19
Relational Database Fundamentals  (0) 2011.02.18
E-business models  (0) 2011.02.18
Educational games  (0) 2011.02.17
This is the results of Shape lecture  (0) 2011.02.15

E-business models

Education | 2011.02.18 06:25 | Posted by 스마트 안전보건

Generating revenue on the Internet  
   * Online ad (banner ad) - box running across a web page that contains advertisements 
   * Pop-up ad - a small web page containing an advertisement  
   * Associate program (affiliate program) - businesses generate commissions or royalties  
   * Viral marketing - a technique that induces websites or users to pass on a marketing message 
   * Mass customization - gives customers the opportunity to tailor products or services (Dell computers)



Online business payments include: 
   * Electronic data interchange (EDI)  
   * Value-added network (VAN)  
   * Financial EDI (financial electronic data interchange)

Measuring e-business success
   * Most companies measure the traffic on a website as the primary determinant of the website’s success   
   * However, a large amount of website traffic does not necessarily equate to large sales   
   * Many organizations with high website traffic have low sales volumes 
   * Website traffic analysis can include:  Cookie, Click-through, Banner ad, Interactivity

Ebusiness benefits include: 
   * Highly accessible  
   * Increased customer loyalty 
   * Improved information content  
   * Increased convenience 
   * Increased global reach  
   * Decreased cost  

Ebusiness challenges include: 
   * Protecting consumers 
   * Leveraging existing systems 
   * Increasing liability
   * Providing security 
   * Adhering to taxation rules

이 글은 스프링노트에서 작성되었습니다.

'Education' 카테고리의 다른 글

TechTrends journal  (0) 2011.02.19
Relational Database Fundamentals  (0) 2011.02.18
E-business models  (0) 2011.02.18
Educational games  (0) 2011.02.17
This is the results of Shape lecture  (0) 2011.02.15
Goals (목표) and Objectives (목적)  (0) 2011.02.15

Denver Korean Businesses

Life & more | 2011.01.18 01:21 | Posted by 스마트 안전보건

These are Korean Businesses in Denver, Colorado as of 2011.

I got it pictured from one of Korean newspapers in Denver.

There are over 100 businesses, ranging from restaurants, hospitals, cleaning etc.





이 글은 스프링노트에서 작성되었습니다.

'Life & more' 카테고리의 다른 글

Poudre River Trail Views  (0) 2011.03.27
Travel around Nashville TN  (0) 2011.03.15
Denver Korean Businesses  (0) 2011.01.18
Working in US legally  (0) 2011.01.12
2011 Free days in Denver  (0) 2011.01.07
More about Great Sand Dunes  (0) 2010.12.31

The 10 Most Innovative Viral Video Ads of 2010

Creativity | 2010.12.11 01:06 | Posted by 스마트 안전보건

I like these viral video ads and recommend you to look at.       

Everybody loves viral videos. That’s why they’re “viral.” Ad agencies have been

trying, in their own way, to replicate the success of viral videos to help their

campaigns get exposure and new fans. While some may miss the mark,

there are some truly great and innovative viral video ads out there.

For this year’s top innovative viral video ads, advertisers and ad agencies split

their goodness between web specific videos and great TV ads that did well online.

Regardless of origin, the top 10 videos share several traits worth noting. Every

creator knows his or her audience well and what executions appeal to them most.

The videos are also inclusive in tone, making you feel like you’re a part of the brand’s

message and experience.

1. NSFW. A Hunter Shoots A Bear!

2. Embrace Life

3. Guy Walks Across America

4. Old Spice Responses

5. The Puma Hardchorus

There are 5 more viral video ads available, so enjoy watching it.

6. Google Chrome Speed Tests
7. Swagger Wagon

8. There’s A Soldier In All Of Us

9. Write the Future

10. Master of business card throwing


See more at mashable.com

이 글은 스프링노트에서 작성되었습니다.


티스토리 툴바