Typography (Typeface)

Education | 2011.02.26 20:19 | Posted by 스마트 안전보건

Key terms
Font: A computer-generated typeface for a specific point size.
Typeface: The formal definition of alphabetical and numerical characters that are united by consistent visual properties.
Typography: The art of the letter form; typography involves composing the letter form.
Kerning: The action of increasing or decreasing the horizontal letter spacing between individual characters or letters in a word.
X-height: The height of a typeface's lowercase letters.
Legibility: The ease with which short burst of text can be read.
Readability: The ease with which long passages of text can be read.
Sans serif: A typeface having characters without any small strokes at the end of each line.
Serif: A typeface having characters with small strokes at the end of each line.

6 groups of typeface
  1. Black letter
    1. only for decoration (training certificates, awards etc)
    2. too difficult to read
    3. 스크린샷_2011-02-26_오전_4.03.24.png
  2. Roman
    1. Old style (Garamond, Time New Roman)
      1. widely used in instructional materials
      2. 스크린샷_2011-02-26_오전_4.03.33.png
    2. Modern (Bonodi)
      1. although striking in appearance, still difficult to read
      2. 스크린샷_2011-02-26_오전_4.03.42.png
    3. Transitional (Bombo, Calson, and Centaur)
      1. Very readable
      2. 스크린샷_2011-02-26_오전_4.03.49.png
  3. Square Serif (Century, Clarendon, and Georgia)
    1. widely used in educational materials (often in children books)
    2. highly readable
    3. 스크린샷_2011-02-26_오전_4.03.56.png
  4. Sans Serif (Franklin Gothic, Futura, Helvetica, Trecuchet, Univers, and Verdana)
    1. legible for computer-based instruction or presentation
    2. used as headings
    3.    스크린샷_2011-02-26_오전_4.06.39.png
  5. Script (Brush Script, Lucida Handwriting, and Freestyle)
    1. limited application in instructional materials
    2. frequently in certificates, ornamentation
    3. 스크린샷_2011-02-26_오전_4.06.45.png
  6. Decorative
    1. Symbol (Moonphases, Menagerie Dingbats, Webdings, and Windings)
      1. providing access to a variety of images that can be used for instructional purposes.
      2. 스크린샷_2011-02-26_오전_4.06.52.png
    2. Display (Really Bad Typewriter, Ravie, and Litterbox)
      1. used for titles, headings, and other display purposes
      2. trying to read for anything that is very lengthy
      3. create a mood or act as a metaphor for a topic
      4. 스크린샷_2011-02-26_오전_4.06.59.png


What type is best for instruction?
Classic typefaces
Serif: Baskerville, Bembo, Bodoni, Calson, Centaur, Century, Clarendon, Garamond, Times New Roman
Sans Serif: Franklin Gothic, Futura, Futura Black, Helvetica, Univers

Mixing typefaces examples
Franklin Gothic (Title) + Clarendon (Content)
Helvetica (Title) + Times NEw Roman (Content)
Futura (Title) + Bodoni (Content)
Univers (Title) + Calson (Content)

Legibility: How easy it is to read short bursts of text, such as headlines, bullets, and signs (Sans Serif).
Readability: How easy it is to read a lot of text, or long passages of text (Serif)

Instructional applications of type


Anatomy of typeface


Ascender: The part of a character that rises above its body (The letters 'b, d, f, h, k, l, and t')
Descender: The part of a character that falls below its baseline (The letters 'g, j, p, and y')
Cross stroke: The horizontal stoke that crosses the vertical stroke of a type character.
Caps height: The height of an uppercase letter measured from the baseline.
Ascender height: The height of the tallest part of a letter.
Baseline: The line on which the bases of upper-= and lowercase letters rest, not including descenders.
Bowl: The curved portion of a character that encloses a counter (The letters 'a, b,c, d, e, g, h, m, n, o, p, q')
Leading: The vertical space between lines of text, called line spacing in some computer programs.
For 6 to 9 point text, use leading up to 4 point higher. For example, 6 point text would use leading between 7 and 10 points.
For 10 to 12 point text, use leading up to 5 points higher. For example, 10 point text would use leading between 11 and 15 points.
Serif: The small end strokes on a character (Large bodies of text)
Counter: The enclosed or partially enclosed area of a type character, including the letters a,b,c,d,e,f,g,m,n,o,p, and q.
Readability is thought to increase with wider counters.
X-height: The height of a lowercase letter without ascenders or descenders, including the letters, a,c,e,i,m,n,o,r,s,u,v,w,x)
In terms of instructional impact, letters with larger x-height are considered easier to read.
Kerning: The horizontal space between individual characters or letters in a word.

Rules of thumb
  1. Set leading 1 to 5 points larger than text when text is between 6 and 12 points.
  2. Use your palm as a guide of an acceptable width of 4 to 5 inches.
  3. For slides and transparencies, set type so it is legible 6 feet from the computer screen.
  4. For printed or computer-based training, set type 4 to 5 inches, or approximately the width of your palm.
  5. For printed text and CBI, 12 point size (Recommended), 11 point size (Most popular), 14 point size (Headings)
  6. For projected displays, 6 X 6 rule (no more than 6 lines of text and no more than 6 words in each line)
  7. 6w X 2w (must be legible a maximum of 6 screen widths distance and a minimum of 2 screen widths distance.
  8. Hold your slide at arm's length from your face.

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