Designing effective instructions (CDT)

Education | 2010.12.15 05:55 | Posted by 스마트 안전보건

I read a book about designing effective instructions by David Merrill.

This is about how you organize and prepare for your presentation or instruction in from of

public. These are the summary of it.


Component Display Theory by David Merrill


David Merrill has developed a system of instructional design that is called component display theory (CDT) (1983, 1994). There are parts of CDT that are beyond the purview of this book and most FLEs. However, Merrill’s discussion of primary presentation forms can provide a very useful guide in the development of short presentations, extended training, and publications—any form of FLE (Family Life Educator).

A common way to begin would be to share a principle with the learners. Merrill calls this an expository generality (EG), which simply means that the teacher tells (called “expository” mode) some general idea, principle, concept, truth, or process (a generality).


In order to help learners understand just what the principle means, the teacher may next choose to provide examples (Eeg or expository instances) that illustrate the major points.

In fact, it seemed clear that the child ran out of interest in the food long before the food ran out. The parent continued to shovel the food into an increasingly unhappy child. That is a good example of nonsensitivity.

Even in such situations, the same general principle presides: When parents are sensitive to their children and their needs, the children are more likely to grow into socially competent people.

Each of the subparts of a principle can be taught in the same way. The principle as stated above has at least three major subparts dealing with the importance of sensitivity, commitment, and relationship.

Merrill’s first principle (2001) states that “learning is facilitated when the learner is engaged in solving a real-world problem” (p. 461).

Merrill’s second principle is that learning is facilitated when existing knowledge is activated as a foundation for new knowledge.

Merrill’s (2000) third principle states that learning is facilitated when new knowledge is demonstrated to the learner. “learning is facilitated when new knowledge is demonstrated to the learner” (Merrill, 2000, p. 2). Many demonstrations over many sessions may be necessary for effective learning.

Merrill’s (2001) fourth principle states that “learning is facilitated when the learner is required to use his or her new knowledge to solve problems” (p. 463). Merrill (2000): “Most learners learn from the errors

they make, especially when they are shown how to recognize the error, how to recover from the error, and how to avoid the error in the future” (p. 8).

Merrill’s (2000) fifth and final point is that “learning is facilitated when new knowledge is integrated into the learner’s world” (p. 2). There is nothing quite like teaching to force us to understand a principle and how it works. Your participants might be invited to give a mini lesson to the class, to teach a group at work or in their faith community.

Merrill (2000) observes that there is no satisfaction quite like moving from student to teacher or mentor.

“The real motivation for learners is learning. When learners are able to demonstrate improvement in skill, they are motivated to perform even better” (p. 8). The combination of integrating the skills into everyday life and sharing them with others cements the lessons.

When instruction—whether oral or written—is designed according to established principles of instructional design, the message is more likely to be effective. In addition, the instruction is more likely to be enjoyable for both the educator and the participant.

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