Open Source Textbooks

Education | 2011. 5. 22. 23:56 | Posted by 스마트 안전보건
These days, college students are burdened by higher costs than ever before. Tuition is at an all-time high and continues to skyrocket, making it more and more difficult to get a diploma without incurring serious debt. The incredibly unaffordable cost of textbooks just adds insult to injury. With textbook publishers holding a virtual monopoly in the market, students often have little choice in the matter. Luckily, a new paradigm is beginning to emerge: open textbooks. Giving the students the option of print or free digital copies, costs drop precipitously. The only problem: textbook companies don't want them on the market. Below is infographics about open source books. What an interesting infographics!
Open Source Textbooks
Via: Online Schools

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MindMapping on the iPad - Free

Education | 2011. 5. 18. 21:20 | Posted by 스마트 안전보건

This is a good little app review from the guys over at igo with my ipad

If you aren’t used to doing visual mapping, even a couple dollar app could be looked at as dollars down the drain if you end up not finding it fills you need.

Idea Sketch is an app we have been using on our iPhones (and Palms) for very quick and simple maps. It is now available for the iPad, and being free it might be a way for most folks to dabble in the world or thought mapping.

Many of the ‘for pay’ options offer the feature of taking a map and showing it as a hierarchal map, Idea Sketch offers this the other way too. If you have not done a map before, start off the way you normally do, make a list. The list should have sub items, you should drill down multiple layers.
Then use Idea Sketch’s option to view your list as a map. Now you can see how your ideas would flow visually. You will find that this view is much easier for people to understand at a glance rather than reading through a long list.
Being free, doesn’t mean Idea Sketch is lacking the many ‘must have’ features. If you know you will have additional information in an area in the future, you can add a ‘no text’ box. The boxes can be resized, colors added and the lines connecting the boxes can have arrows to assist showing directional flow. Multiple boxes can also be moved at a time to show better grouping....
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Educational Technology Conference from June to December 2011

Education | 2011. 5. 18. 08:36 | Posted by 스마트 안전보건
This potpourri of educational technology conferences includes gems such as “Saving Your Organisation from Boring eLearning” and “Lessons and Insights from Ten eLearning Masters”. And, if you wish, you can “Be an Open Learning Hero”. You will also find that the number of mobile learning conferences (and conferences that have a mobile learning component) have increased significantly. Countries such as China, Indonesia, Japan, and Thailand have shown a keen interest in mobile learning.

The list below covers selected events focused primarily on the use of technology in educational settings and on teaching, learning, and educational administration. Only listings until December 2011 are complete as dates, locations, or URLs are not available for a number of events held after December 2011. But, take a look at the conference organizers who planned ahead in 2012.
Educational conference date from june to december 2011
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5 best practices for training professionals

Education | 2011. 5. 18. 07:27 | Posted by 스마트 안전보건

With the current economic downturn and signs of an emerging recovery, executives are trying to determine how to best use their organizations’ funds and resources. This may mean down- sizing human resource departments and eliminating positions for training personnel. Villachica & Stepich (2010) offer five strategies drawn from the professional literature to survive these and future trying times:

(1) align efforts with organizational missions and business goals,

(2) use training only when it addresses a gap between existing and desired performance arising from a lack of requisite skill,

(3) craft instructional objectives that describe exemplary job perfor- mance,

(4) create sound training programs that promote learning and transfer to the job, and

(5) collaborate with sponsors and other stakeholders outside the training department to pro- mote transfer of training to the job.

Training personnel who employ these strategies successfully may be able to answer executives’ common question, ‘‘What have you done for me recently that matters?’’

These practices will help executives determine their returns on training investments, managers see on-the-job behavioral change that leverages the performance of exemplary personnel, and trainees confidently apply relevant skills and knowledge to the workplace. Executives, managers, and trainees who see the value of the training they complete will be less likely to cut training budgets and eliminate the positions of training professionals.

1. Aligning Training With Strategic Business Objectives

2. Closing Skill Gaps

Phillips and Phillips’s (2002) second most common reason for the failure of training and development programs lay in a failure to recognize nontraining solutions. There is little or no payoff for developing and implementing the wrong solution, and in a variety of performance gaps, a lack of skill or knowledge is not the underlying cause.

Table above depicts both the BEM and the relative frequencies Dean obtained for each of the potential causes of a performance gap. Dean’s results indicated that causes other than a lack of skill and knowledge account for 89.4% of all performance gaps, with environmental causes alone accounting for 75.6%. Training is the appro- priate solution for closing a performance gap only when the cause lies in a lack of required skill or knowledge—about 10% of the time.

As over 45% of all potential gaps arise from a lack of information (data and knowledge), training professionals need to determine whether information to close performance gaps should reside in the environment, where people could access the directions they need to perform their tasks using a job aid, a tool, or some sort of performance support that acts as ‘‘a repository for information, processes, and perspectives that inform and guide planning and action’’ (Rossett & Schafer, 2007, p. 2) or the heads of performers, where people access internalized skills and knowledge learned in training and recalled from memory. Organizations that use job aids or performance support to address performance gaps arising from a lack of access to data can obtain desired performances without incurring costly training development, delivery, and maintenance costs.


<A flow chart for determining whether a job-aid or training is appropriate>

Harless also notes one exception to this rule: the use of quasi-training in situations where preparing and distributing a job aid has not met with as much success as introducing it in training sessions describing when and how to use the job aid in the workplace. Such quasi-training focuses on providing trainees with practice using the job aids to complete job tasks and showing howabsence of aids hinders work performance. Such quasi-training requires less time to create, deliver, and maintain than training to build fluent job performance based on recall of learned skill and knowledge.


<Illustration of outcomes in mind for a training request>

Every training request should undergo some sort of front-end analyses (Hale, 2007; Harless, 1973; Robinson & Robinson, 2008; Rossett, 1987, 2009; Rummler, 2007) to do the following:
~ Specify the gap between existing and desired performance using measurable terms.
~ Align the gap with the organization’s business goals or mission.
~ Determine whether the gap is worth closing.
~ Determine whether the gap arises from a lack of skill and knowledge rather than environmental or other potential causes.
~ Use training to address skill gaps or create appropriate nontraining performance improvement solutions (or partner with those outside the training department who can).

The mere existence of regulatory requirements does not free training departments from their obligation to conduct front-end analyses. In these situations, training personnel tasked with providing mandated training would still be wise to conduct a front-end analysis for the following reasons:
~ Aligning the required training with relevant regulations, as well as organizational missions and business goals.
~ Framing training within a larger context of exemplary job performance that includes nontraining solutions that work together to create organizational cultures and work environments that remove potential barriers to compliant behavior.
~ Focusing training on job skills that need continuous practice to be maintained or involve complex problem solving.
~ Identifying opportunities for job aids, cross-training, and modularization to minimize time spent in training while still meeting due diligence requirements.


3. Job-Focused Instructional Objectives

Mager (1962) contended that instructional objectives should consist of three parts:

~ A behavior specifying what trainees are able to do to demonstrate achievement of the objective.

~ Conditions specifying what is imposed on trainees when they are demonstrating their mastery of the objective.

~ Criteria specifying how well trainees should be able to demonstrate their achievement of the objective.


<Congruence of Performance, Condition, and Criteria of an instructional objectives>

Training professionals then use information from the task analysis to craft instructional objectives. In training situations, each component of the instructional objectives should have a distinct job focus:

~ Performance: What should people do on the job to perform in the same way that the organization’s exemplars do?

~ Conditions: Under what circumstances will they do that on the job (including cues that tell exemplarswhento perform and the resources they use)?

~ Criteria: What defines doing work well on the job (the standards that exemplary performance meets to close the skill gap and meet the organization’s mission and business goals)
3 roles of job-focused objectives

First, they act as a contractamongthe training professionalswhocreated them, the training sponsor, and the training stakeholders.

Second, job-focused instructional objectives act as a compass for instructional designers who are creating lean and effective training.

Third, job-focused objectives facilitate the transfer of learned performance to the job. 

Thorndike andWoodworth (1901) argued that the transfer of learning is a function of the number of identical elements between two environments. Their findings indicate that the greater the number of shared elements, the more transfer will occur. Training professionals promote transfer of learning when they create learning environments that resemble the job—the closer, the better. This rule ofthumbappears in the military adage, ‘‘Fight like you train and train like you fight.’’

<Job-focused instructional objectives for trainees in 4 working settings>

4. Creating sound training programs

Johann Friedrich Herbart (1776–1841) developed a five-step teaching sequence based on his methods (Clark, 1999):

1. Prepare the pupils to be ready for the new lesson
2. Present the new lesson.

3. Associate the new lesson with ideas studied earlier.

4. Use examples to illustrate the lesson’s major points.

5. Test pupils to ensure they had learned the new lesson.

Gagne´ (1988, p. 11) formulated nine events of instruction:

1. Gaining attention.
2. Informing the learner of the objective.

3. Stimulating recall of prior learning.

4. Presenting the stimulus.

5. Providing learning guidance.

6. Eliciting the performance.

7. Giving informative feedback.

8. Assessing performance.

9. Enhancing retention and transfer

Merrill and colleagues (Merrill, 2002; Merrill, Barclay, & van Schaak, 2007) identified five underlying prescriptive principles of learning. Each corresponds to a phase of Merrill’s instructional sequence, with further guidance for each phase provided by specific corollaries.

<Merrill's Five Principles of Learning>


5. Looking outside the training department

Training professionals should collaborate with sponsors and other stakeholders outside the training program in ways that promote transfer to the job.
Georgenson (1982) estimated that only 10% of the information presented in training results in behavioral change on the job. In a study of 150 organizations, Saks and Belcourt (2006) reported that 62%, 44%, and34% of employees apply training on the job immediately, six months, and one year after training. This suggests that transfer of training to the job is complex.

Both Broad and Newstrom (1992) and Milheim (1994) suggested a variety of pretraining, training, and posttraining activities that facilitate transfer and persistence of newly learned skills on the job. As one example of collaboration, Broad andNewstrom (1992) describe a transfer partnership involving managers, trainers, and trainees ‘‘who have a strong interest in a particular trainingprogramandwhohave agreed toworktogether to support the full application of the training to the job’’ (p. 14).

Including different levels of management represents another change. For example, supervisors may need to adjust schedules to accommodate training attendance and revise productivity expectations to allow trainees to apply what they learned in training to the job. Supervisors may need to assist trainees with course selection and enforce course prerequisites. Line managers who are funding training efforts may need to provide release time and incentives for exemplary performers to share their skills with the training developers who are conducting task analyses. Managers may also need to provide resources for the collection and analysis of level 3 and 4 evaluation data. Executives may need to see aggregated training data to gauge the overall returns on their training investments relative to their competitors and to organizations’ strategic directions.

This kind of collaboration requires training professionals to look for opportunities to work with executives, managers, supervisors, and trainees to ensure that training transfers from the classroom to the job to the bottom line.


Moving from order takers to partners in improved job performance will require training personnel to adopt appropriate short- and longer-term strategies. In the short term, training personnel could focus on seizing opportunities involving low complexity and risks that offer large organizational returns.
One tactic may be to cut any training not directly aligned with organizational missions or business goals. Another tactic could be eliminating or minimizing training by providing job aids or online performance support (Rossett & Schafer, 2007). By closing gaps in performance arising from a lack of access to data or tools, this tactic places necessary standards, guidance, feedback, process, and tools in the job environment rather than in the long-termmemoryof the learner. A third tactic is to look for opportunities to partner with the organization’s information technology (IT) group to eliminate or minimize training by creating online performance support.

In the longer term, completing the move from order taker to performance partner requires training personnel to reposition their efforts to focus on performance improvement. Seen this way, training becomes one of a variety of approaches for meeting this goal, a special case of improving workplace performance. Part of the long-term strategy will require training professionals to upgrade theirownskill sets andfindopportunities to employ them in ways that focus on performance. Most of these opportunities should address identifying and removing environmental barriers, as Dean (1997) suggests they are the sources of some 76% of gaps between existing and desired performance. Other strategies are to create effective blends of performance-based training for gaps that truly result from a lack of skill or knowledge and then partner with supervisors and managers in ways that facilitate transfer and measurably improved job performance. Still other long-term strategies involve institutionalizing exemplary performance throughout the organization. These strategies would partner training personnel, executives, line managers, supervisors, exemplary performers, novices, and others in ways that create a culture of sustainable excellence throughout the organization.


Source: Surviving Troubled Times: Five Best Practices for Training Professionals by Villachica & Stepich, 2010

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ePub: Publishing your own iBooks for the iPad

Education | 2011. 5. 16. 00:48 | Posted by 스마트 안전보건

ePub stands for e-Publishing. It has been adopted as the international standard for publishing e-books.

The ease of ePub is that any PDF text file can be uploaded into an ePub document. This means that many existing documents can be easily converted into an ePub full featured publication. Once you have published your e-book you can then give your student access to the document or you can publish it via your itunes. If it something that others may use or enjoy you can even distribute or sell it via ibooks.

Benefits of ePub:

The open source and free format allows for reflowable text facilities. This means that it allows word wrapping, resizable text and in-line and vector images.

ePub also means that the files have metadata embedded in them which allows for the features that we have become used to with ibooks

  • definitions of words when clicked 
  • can locate all verbs, adverbs etc in the whole document 
  • embedded video and movies 
  • live links to resources and websites 
  • landscape or portrait capabilities 
  • single or side-by-side page displays 
  • it also has the support of many of the major publishing houses 

Limitations of ePub:

  • the ePub format code does not allow for design features 
  • therefore significant styling and presentation limitations 
  • all graphics have to be anchored into the text, other features have to be reflowed into body text 
  • therefore not great for textbooks - any design intensive layouts like sidebars or image callouts that look great in a printed textbook necessitate major redesign to meet epub standards 
  • strange behaviour on different devices 
  • ePub format targeted at limited content types - great for fiction


ePub books will allow many people to publish their own e-books that will be able to be accessed using either itunes or ibooks on iOS devices. This provides the ability of drastically reducing the costs of texts for schools and the ability for teachers to differentiate texts for specific groups. Many of these will be excellent publications that serve the purpose they will be designed for.

The use of ePubs for textbooks is itself limited due to the restrictions of the design features of the present format. The whole nature of presenting information on the iPad is about the features. These are only good if the overall design of the publication is engaging and captures the students attention. The fact that many of the design features we can already do in design applications, Illustrator or Pages can not be incorporated into the ePub format let this down as an educational tool. It also means that many of the big publishing houses will simply produce PDFs of existing textbooks.

When this aspect of the ePub protocol is rectified than this will become a tool that really democratises textbook publication. Until then it can still be an excellent way to get documents or e-books on to your students's iPads.

If you are interested in locating or publishing ibooks in the ePub format try these sites: &
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21 Things That Will Be Obsolete by 2020

Education | 2011. 5. 7. 21:10 | Posted by 스마트 안전보건

Inspired by Sandy Speicher’s vision of the designed school day of the future, reader Shelly Blake-Plock shared his own predictions of that ideal day. How close are we to this? The post was written in December 2009, and Blake-Plock says he’s seeing some of these already beginning to come to fruition.

The 21st century does not fit neatly into rows. Neither should your students. Allow the network-based concepts of flow, collaboration, and dynamism help you rearrange your room for authentic 21st century learning.

Foreign language acquisition is only a smartphone away. Get rid of those clunky desktops and monitors and do something fun with that room.
Ok, so this is a trick answer. More precisely this one should read: ‘Our concept of what a computer is’. Because computing is going mobile and over the next decade we’re going to see the full fury of individualized computing via handhelds come to the fore. Can’t wait.
The 21st century is a 24/7 environment. And the next decade is going to see the traditional temporal boundaries between home and school disappear. And despite whatever Secretary Duncan might say, we don’t need kids to ‘go to school’ more; we need them to ‘learn’ more. And this will be done 24/7 and on the move.

The AP Exam is on its last legs. The SAT isn’t far behind. Over the next ten years, we will see Digital Portfolios replace test scores as the #1 factor in college admissions.
The 21st century is customizable. In ten years, the teacher who hasn’t yet figured out how to use tech to personalize learning will be the teacher out of a job. Differentiation won’t make you ‘distinguished’; it’ll just be a natural part of your work.
Wikipedia is the greatest democratizing force in the world right now. If you are afraid of letting your students peruse it, it’s time you get over yourself.
Books were nice. In ten years’ time, all reading will be via digital means. And yes, I know, you like the ‘feel’ of paper. Well, in ten years’ time you’ll hardly tell the difference as ‘paper’ itself becomes digitized.

Bio scans. ‘Nuff said.
A coat-check, maybe.
Ok, so this is another trick answer. More subtly put: IT Departments as we currently know them. Cloud computing and a decade’s worth of increased wifi and satellite access will make some of the traditional roles of IT — software, security, and connectivity — a thing of the past. What will IT professionals do with all their free time? Innovate. Look to tech departments to instigate real change in the function of schools over the next twenty years.
School buildings are going to become ‘homebases’ of learning, not the institutions where all learning happens. Buildings will get smaller and greener, student and teacher schedules will change to allow less people on campus at any one time, and more teachers and students will be going out into their communities to engage in experiential learning.
Education over the next ten years will become more individualized, leaving the bulk of grade-based learning in the past. Students will form peer groups by interest and these interest groups will petition for specialized learning. The structure of K-12 will be fundamentally altered.
This is actually one that could occur over the next five years. Education Schools have to realize that if they are to remain relevant, they are going to have to demand that 21st century tech integration be modeled by the very professors who are supposed to be preparing our teachers.
No one knows your school as well as you. With the power of a PLN (professional learing networks) in their back pockets, teachers will rise up to replace peripatetic professional development gurus as the source of schoolwide professional development programs. This is already happening.
There is no reason why every student needs to take however many credits in the same course of study as every other student. The root of curricular change will be the shift in middle schools to a role as foundational content providers and high schools as places for specialized learning.
Ongoing parent-teacher relations in virtual reality will make parent-teacher conference nights seem quaint. Over the next ten years, parents and teachers will become closer than ever as a result of virtual communication opportunities. And parents will drive schools to become ever more tech integrated.
Nutrition information + handhelds + cost comparison = the end of $3.00 bowls of microwaved mac and cheese. At least, I so hope so.

You need a website/brochure/promo/etc.? Well, for goodness sake just let your kids do it. By the end of the decade — in the best of schools — they will be.
Within the decade, it will either become the norm to teach this course in middle school or we’ll have finally woken up to the fact that there’s no reason to give algebra weight over statistics and I.T. in high school for non-math majors (and they will have all taken it in middle school anyway).
In ten years’ time, schools will decrease their paper consumption by no less than 90%. And the printing industry and the copier industry and the paper industry itself will either adjust or perish.


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The world is your classroom

Education | 2011. 5. 6. 23:32 | Posted by 스마트 안전보건

This article is from Dr. Steve Wheeler's Blog.

I want to inspire you to reach farther. Most teachers are limited to their classroom, or to the environment within which they and their students can interact. Some may be fortunate enough to escape from the classroom to lead outdoor education trips, or work within a forest school, spending class time exploring and learning from their surroundings. Some teachers are even lucky enough to conduct a comparative studies trip in a foreign country. Most teachers though, usually find themselves trapped within the four walls of the classroom or lecture hall for much of their working week. And yet with the new social media tools, we can all be worldwide educators. All we need is something important to say, and a tool such as this blog as a vehicle to say it with.  It never ceased to amaze me how many students contact me to say how much they enjoy reading this blog. Some have told me how much it has inspired them to learn more, explore, take risks, and reach further.

world education.jpg

This kind of positive affrirmation is very important to me and to other edubloggers. Personally, it's one of the main reasons I continue to blog and invest my time in it. Knowing that what I'm writing, and the richness of the subsequent dialogue are having a such positive impact on someone, is one of the main reasons I blog so regularly.  This morning I happened to stumble upon an interesting Twitter stream hashtag - #qaz11 - which I quickly realised was being generated by a group of students in the care of my old friend Jose Luis Garcia (well worth following him on Twitter: @JL3001, over at the University of Cantabria in Spain. Although the tweets were in Spanish, I was able to translate them using Tweetdeck, and I followed for a little while. The students were discussing the merits of the 10 Teaching with Twitter activities I posted on this blog. It was interesting to see them analyse and evaluate the potential of each of the activities within their own professional context as trainee teachers. Without me actually being there, my thoughts were having an impact on the students' learning - my ideas were helping them to frame their thinking, promote discussion and engage critically with the topic.  The same is happening all over the world, every hour, every day as teachers begin to share their ideas and advice, best practice and top tips across a global platform - the blog. We have become a new breed of teacher Quite literally, we are worldwide educators, with students in every country of the world, who read our blogs, think, argue, learn and then go off to try out some ideas. We don't always see them, and we may never meet them, but they are there, and they are learning.   So don't limit yourself to seeing the four walls of your classroom as the full extent of your world. Reach further - and become a worldwide educator. You have the technology.  Multi-media brought the world into your classroom. Social media will take your classroom into the world.

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A flyer of 'Why Social Networking?'  (0) 2011.05.02
Overview of AR instruction site  (0) 2011.04.23
Helvetica is everywhere in life  (0) 2011.04.23

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A flyer of 'Why Social Networking?'

Education | 2011. 5. 2. 15:13 | Posted by 스마트 안전보건

This is a flyer explaing 'Why Social Networking?'. People have diverse reasons to use social networking services.

This was my idea of the flyer. I made it in iPad 2, which I recently bought.


This one below was done in iPhone 4. I used an app called 'Brushes'.


Finally, I think I got it right. The last version was done with Adobe Illustrator CS5.


Why social networking flyer
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This is the documentary movie about 'Why Social Networking?'

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Overview of AR instruction site

Education | 2011. 4. 23. 22:46 | Posted by 스마트 안전보건

These are overviews of AR instruction site, my final project of instructional design class.

1. Concept map of the marketing problems in Busitco



2. Concept map of AR instruction siteLayout_of_AR_site.png

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Helvetica is everywhere in life

Education | 2011. 4. 23. 21:16 | Posted by 스마트 안전보건

About the film 'Helvetica'

Helvetica is one of fonts or typefaces and is also a documentary movie about typeface 'Helvetica'

Helvetica is a feature-length independent film about typography, graphic design and global visual culture. It looks at the proliferation of one typeface (which celebrated its 50th birthday in 2007) as part of a larger conversation about the way type affects our lives. The film is an exploration of urban spaces in major cities and the type that inhabits them, and a fluid discussion with renowned designers about their work, the creative process, and the choices and aesthetics behind their use of type.



Helvetica encompasses the worlds of design, advertising, psychology, and communication, and invites us to take a second look at the thousands of words we see every day. The film was shot in high-definition on location in the United States, England, the Netherlands, Germany, Switzerland, France and Belgium.

Interviewees in Helvetica include some of the most illustrious and innovative names in the design world, including Erik Spiekermann, Matthew Carter, Massimo Vignelli, Wim Crouwel, Hermann Zapf, Neville Brody, Stefan Sagmeister, Michael Bierut, David Carson, Paula Scher, Jonathan Hoefler, Tobias Frere-Jones, Experimental Jetset, Michael C. Place, Norm, Alfred Hoffmann, Mike Parker, Bruno Steinert, Otmar Hoefer, Leslie Savan, Rick Poynor, and Lars Müller.



Helvetica had its World Premiere at the South by Southwest Film Festival in March 2007. The film subsequently toured film festivals, special events, and art house cinemas worldwide, playing in over 300 cities in 40 countries. It received its television premiere on BBC1 in November 2007, and will be broadcast on PBS as part of the Emmy award-winning series Independent Lens in fall 2008. The film was nominated for a 2008 Independent Spirit Award in the "Truer Than Fiction" category, and was shortlisted for the Design Museum London's "Designs of the Year" Award. An excerpt of the film was included in an exhibition at the Museum of Modern Art in New York.

About typeface

Helvetica was developed by Max Miedinger with Edüard Hoffmann in 1957 for the Haas Type Foundry in Münchenstein, Switzerland. In the late 1950s, the European design world saw a revival of older sans-serif typefaces such as the German face Akzidenz Grotesk. Haas' director Hoffmann commissioned Miedinger, a former employee and freelance designer, to draw an updated sans-serif typeface to add to their line. The result was called Neue Haas Grotesk, but its name was later changed to Helvetica, derived from Helvetia, the Latin name for Switzerland, when Haas' German parent companies Stempel and Linotype began marketing the font internationally in 1961.


Introduced amidst a wave of popularity of Swiss design, and fueled by advertising agencies selling this new design style to their clients, Helvetica quickly appeared in corporate logos, signage for transportation systems, fine art prints, and myriad other uses worldwide. Inclusion of the font in home computer systems such as the Apple Macintosh in 1984 only further cemented its ubiquity.

Some key comments in the movie 'Helvetica'

Typefaces express the mood and the atmosphere.
Helvetica is ubiquitous, we can see it everywhere.
The designer has enormous reponsibilities.
CI of American Airline has not been changed for 40 years.
Don't use more than 3 typefaces.
Helvetica is the modern type and has a great legibility.
After world war II, there is a idealism, Design was the part of that and should be more democratic, social reponsibility
Helvetica emerged in 1957 and there was the need for rationality, where can be applied to all kinds of information
Design should be clear, real, and straightforward.
Helvetica is all about interrelationship of the negative shapes, the figure-ground relationship, shapes between characters and within characters.
Helvetica are letters that live in powerful matrix of surrounding spaces.
Helvetia is the Latin name of Switzerland
Neutral, effective, accessible, transparent, accountable are features of Helvetica.

Some Trailer Clips of Helvetica

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