'CBI'에 해당되는 글 2

  1. 2011.01.03 How to make a good tutorial
  2. 2011.01.01 General features of designing learning software
 

How to make a good tutorial

Education | 2011.01.03 23:13 | Posted by 스마트 안전보건

There are several methodologies for instructional design. And this article is about how well design and develop a tutorial among various instructional methodologies.

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Introduction

Use A short title page

State the lesson goals and objectives briefly, except with children

Give accurate directions and make them available to the learner at all times

Relate what the learner will study to previous knowledge

Avoid putting pretests in a tutorial. Use pretests only when you know they

are needed and use them in separate computer programs whenever possible

 

Learner control

Give adults more control than children

Always allow control of forward progression and backward review

Allow global controls, rather than occasional control, as much as possible

Always allow temporary termination

When menus are used, they should always be available

Always provide controls for audio, video, and animation (pause, continue,

reply, skip, volume change, and speed change)

Use the mouse for learner control

 

Motivation

Emphasize intrinsic motivation whenever possible

Consider motivation at macro-level (strategies) and micro-level (lesson characteristics)

Provide an appropriate level of challenge

Arouse and maintain curiosity

Enhance imagery and involvement through fantasy

Provide an appropriate level of learner control

Arouse and maintain attention throughout the lesson

Content should be relevant to the learner and the relevance should be made clear

Provide opportunity for success and satisfaction through appropriate

goals, reinforcement, and fairness

Apply motivation techniques in moderation, intelligently, and in harmony

with other instructional factors

 

Presentation of information

Presentations should be short

Layouts should be attractive an consistent

Avoid scrolling

Use conventions in paragraphing, keypresses, directions, and response prompts

Use graphics for important information, analogy, and cues

Keep graphics simple

Use color sparingly and for important information

Avoid color in text

Text should be lean, clear, and have good mechanics

Stress clear transitions between presentations on different topics

Use appropriate organizational methods for verbal information, concepts, rules,

and principles, and skills

Provide procedural help and make it easy to request

 

Questions and responses

Ask frequent questions, especially comprehension questions

Use the mouse for responding whenever possible

Put the typing prompt below the question and the left margin

Questions should promote response economy

Ask questions about important information

Allow the learner more than one try to answer a question

Do not require the learner to get a correct answer without help to proceed

Give help on response format whenever necessary

Alternate-response questions are harder to write, easier to judge, and allow guessing

Constructed-response questions are easier to write, harder to judge, and prevent guessing

Foils on multiple-choice questions should be plausible

Fill-in questions should have the blanks near the end

Be aware of whether you should be testing recall or comprehension,

and use appropriate question types

Reading difficulty should be appropriate to the learner's reading level

Avoid abbreviation and negatives in questions

Questions should never scroll out of view

Questions should appear after information in a lesson and below information

on a particular display

Global learner controls should still be available during questions

 

Judging responses

Judge intelligently, as a live instructor would. Allow for word order, synonyms,

spelling, and extra words

Look for both correct responses and expected incorrect responses

Allow as much time as the learner needs for a response

Allow the learner to ask for help, and to escape

Providing feedback about responses

If response content is correct, give a short affirmation

If response format is incorrect, say so and allow another response

If response content is incorrect, give corrective feedback

 

Remediation

Provide remediation for repeated poor performance. This might be

a recommendation to restudy or see the instructor

Sequencing lesson segments

Overall sequence should be hierarchical or based on difficulty

Avoid simple linear tutorials. Provide branching based on performance

The learner should control progression. Never use timed pauses

Provide restarting capability

Give sequence control to mature learners

Always permit temporary ending based on learner choice

Permanent ending should be based on learner performance

 

Closing

Store data for restarting

Clear the screen

Make the end obvious with a short final message

Return the learner to where he or she started before the tutorial

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General features of designing learning software

Education | 2011.01.01 14:38 | Posted by 스마트 안전보건

This is general features that instructors should take into account

when they develop learning software such as text, video, or web.

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Introduction

Use a short title page

Provide clear and concise directions

Allow user identification

 

Learner control

Use the mouse

Use keyboard also for more expert users

Use buttons for local controls

Use menus for global controls

Provide controls that are obvious and easy to use

Use cursor changes, rollovers, and confirmation with controls

Provide consistent position, appearance, and function in controls

Design controls in accordance with your users and your content

Make controls and directions for them visible only when available


Presentation of information

Be consistent

Use presentation modes appropriately (e.g., text, sound, video)

Text should be lean, clear, well formatted, and at an appropriate reading level

Use graphics and video for important information

Video should be short and controllable

Use speech to catch attention, give directions, and facilitate dual coding

Maintain good color contrasts, such as between foreground and background


Providing help

Procedural help should always be available

Provide context-sensitive help

Use rollovers as a form of constant help

Always provide a help button when help is available

Provide help in a manual for starting the program


Ending a program

Distinguish temporary versus permanent termination

Always allow temporary termination

Provide safety nets when the learner requests termination

Give credits and a final message at the end

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