5 best practices for training professionals

Education | 2011.05.18 07:27 | Posted by 스마트 안전보건

With the current economic downturn and signs of an emerging recovery, executives are trying to determine how to best use their organizations’ funds and resources. This may mean down- sizing human resource departments and eliminating positions for training personnel. Villachica & Stepich (2010) offer five strategies drawn from the professional literature to survive these and future trying times:

(1) align efforts with organizational missions and business goals,

(2) use training only when it addresses a gap between existing and desired performance arising from a lack of requisite skill,

(3) craft instructional objectives that describe exemplary job perfor- mance,

(4) create sound training programs that promote learning and transfer to the job, and

(5) collaborate with sponsors and other stakeholders outside the training department to pro- mote transfer of training to the job.

Training personnel who employ these strategies successfully may be able to answer executives’ common question, ‘‘What have you done for me recently that matters?’’

These practices will help executives determine their returns on training investments, managers see on-the-job behavioral change that leverages the performance of exemplary personnel, and trainees confidently apply relevant skills and knowledge to the workplace. Executives, managers, and trainees who see the value of the training they complete will be less likely to cut training budgets and eliminate the positions of training professionals.

1. Aligning Training With Strategic Business Objectives

2. Closing Skill Gaps

Phillips and Phillips’s (2002) second most common reason for the failure of training and development programs lay in a failure to recognize nontraining solutions. There is little or no payoff for developing and implementing the wrong solution, and in a variety of performance gaps, a lack of skill or knowledge is not the underlying cause.

Table above depicts both the BEM and the relative frequencies Dean obtained for each of the potential causes of a performance gap. Dean’s results indicated that causes other than a lack of skill and knowledge account for 89.4% of all performance gaps, with environmental causes alone accounting for 75.6%. Training is the appro- priate solution for closing a performance gap only when the cause lies in a lack of required skill or knowledge—about 10% of the time.

As over 45% of all potential gaps arise from a lack of information (data and knowledge), training professionals need to determine whether information to close performance gaps should reside in the environment, where people could access the directions they need to perform their tasks using a job aid, a tool, or some sort of performance support that acts as ‘‘a repository for information, processes, and perspectives that inform and guide planning and action’’ (Rossett & Schafer, 2007, p. 2) or the heads of performers, where people access internalized skills and knowledge learned in training and recalled from memory. Organizations that use job aids or performance support to address performance gaps arising from a lack of access to data can obtain desired performances without incurring costly training development, delivery, and maintenance costs.


<A flow chart for determining whether a job-aid or training is appropriate>

Harless also notes one exception to this rule: the use of quasi-training in situations where preparing and distributing a job aid has not met with as much success as introducing it in training sessions describing when and how to use the job aid in the workplace. Such quasi-training focuses on providing trainees with practice using the job aids to complete job tasks and showing howabsence of aids hinders work performance. Such quasi-training requires less time to create, deliver, and maintain than training to build fluent job performance based on recall of learned skill and knowledge.


<Illustration of outcomes in mind for a training request>

Every training request should undergo some sort of front-end analyses (Hale, 2007; Harless, 1973; Robinson & Robinson, 2008; Rossett, 1987, 2009; Rummler, 2007) to do the following:
~ Specify the gap between existing and desired performance using measurable terms.
~ Align the gap with the organization’s business goals or mission.
~ Determine whether the gap is worth closing.
~ Determine whether the gap arises from a lack of skill and knowledge rather than environmental or other potential causes.
~ Use training to address skill gaps or create appropriate nontraining performance improvement solutions (or partner with those outside the training department who can).

The mere existence of regulatory requirements does not free training departments from their obligation to conduct front-end analyses. In these situations, training personnel tasked with providing mandated training would still be wise to conduct a front-end analysis for the following reasons:
~ Aligning the required training with relevant regulations, as well as organizational missions and business goals.
~ Framing training within a larger context of exemplary job performance that includes nontraining solutions that work together to create organizational cultures and work environments that remove potential barriers to compliant behavior.
~ Focusing training on job skills that need continuous practice to be maintained or involve complex problem solving.
~ Identifying opportunities for job aids, cross-training, and modularization to minimize time spent in training while still meeting due diligence requirements.


3. Job-Focused Instructional Objectives

Mager (1962) contended that instructional objectives should consist of three parts:

~ A behavior specifying what trainees are able to do to demonstrate achievement of the objective.

~ Conditions specifying what is imposed on trainees when they are demonstrating their mastery of the objective.

~ Criteria specifying how well trainees should be able to demonstrate their achievement of the objective.


<Congruence of Performance, Condition, and Criteria of an instructional objectives>

Training professionals then use information from the task analysis to craft instructional objectives. In training situations, each component of the instructional objectives should have a distinct job focus:

~ Performance: What should people do on the job to perform in the same way that the organization’s exemplars do?

~ Conditions: Under what circumstances will they do that on the job (including cues that tell exemplarswhento perform and the resources they use)?

~ Criteria: What defines doing work well on the job (the standards that exemplary performance meets to close the skill gap and meet the organization’s mission and business goals)
3 roles of job-focused objectives

First, they act as a contractamongthe training professionalswhocreated them, the training sponsor, and the training stakeholders.

Second, job-focused instructional objectives act as a compass for instructional designers who are creating lean and effective training.

Third, job-focused objectives facilitate the transfer of learned performance to the job. 

Thorndike andWoodworth (1901) argued that the transfer of learning is a function of the number of identical elements between two environments. Their findings indicate that the greater the number of shared elements, the more transfer will occur. Training professionals promote transfer of learning when they create learning environments that resemble the job—the closer, the better. This rule ofthumbappears in the military adage, ‘‘Fight like you train and train like you fight.’’

<Job-focused instructional objectives for trainees in 4 working settings>

4. Creating sound training programs

Johann Friedrich Herbart (1776–1841) developed a five-step teaching sequence based on his methods (Clark, 1999):

1. Prepare the pupils to be ready for the new lesson
2. Present the new lesson.

3. Associate the new lesson with ideas studied earlier.

4. Use examples to illustrate the lesson’s major points.

5. Test pupils to ensure they had learned the new lesson.

Gagne´ (1988, p. 11) formulated nine events of instruction:

1. Gaining attention.
2. Informing the learner of the objective.

3. Stimulating recall of prior learning.

4. Presenting the stimulus.

5. Providing learning guidance.

6. Eliciting the performance.

7. Giving informative feedback.

8. Assessing performance.

9. Enhancing retention and transfer

Merrill and colleagues (Merrill, 2002; Merrill, Barclay, & van Schaak, 2007) identified five underlying prescriptive principles of learning. Each corresponds to a phase of Merrill’s instructional sequence, with further guidance for each phase provided by specific corollaries.

<Merrill's Five Principles of Learning>


5. Looking outside the training department

Training professionals should collaborate with sponsors and other stakeholders outside the training program in ways that promote transfer to the job.
Georgenson (1982) estimated that only 10% of the information presented in training results in behavioral change on the job. In a study of 150 organizations, Saks and Belcourt (2006) reported that 62%, 44%, and34% of employees apply training on the job immediately, six months, and one year after training. This suggests that transfer of training to the job is complex.

Both Broad and Newstrom (1992) and Milheim (1994) suggested a variety of pretraining, training, and posttraining activities that facilitate transfer and persistence of newly learned skills on the job. As one example of collaboration, Broad andNewstrom (1992) describe a transfer partnership involving managers, trainers, and trainees ‘‘who have a strong interest in a particular trainingprogramandwhohave agreed toworktogether to support the full application of the training to the job’’ (p. 14).

Including different levels of management represents another change. For example, supervisors may need to adjust schedules to accommodate training attendance and revise productivity expectations to allow trainees to apply what they learned in training to the job. Supervisors may need to assist trainees with course selection and enforce course prerequisites. Line managers who are funding training efforts may need to provide release time and incentives for exemplary performers to share their skills with the training developers who are conducting task analyses. Managers may also need to provide resources for the collection and analysis of level 3 and 4 evaluation data. Executives may need to see aggregated training data to gauge the overall returns on their training investments relative to their competitors and to organizations’ strategic directions.

This kind of collaboration requires training professionals to look for opportunities to work with executives, managers, supervisors, and trainees to ensure that training transfers from the classroom to the job to the bottom line.


Moving from order takers to partners in improved job performance will require training personnel to adopt appropriate short- and longer-term strategies. In the short term, training personnel could focus on seizing opportunities involving low complexity and risks that offer large organizational returns.
One tactic may be to cut any training not directly aligned with organizational missions or business goals. Another tactic could be eliminating or minimizing training by providing job aids or online performance support (Rossett & Schafer, 2007). By closing gaps in performance arising from a lack of access to data or tools, this tactic places necessary standards, guidance, feedback, process, and tools in the job environment rather than in the long-termmemoryof the learner. A third tactic is to look for opportunities to partner with the organization’s information technology (IT) group to eliminate or minimize training by creating online performance support.

In the longer term, completing the move from order taker to performance partner requires training personnel to reposition their efforts to focus on performance improvement. Seen this way, training becomes one of a variety of approaches for meeting this goal, a special case of improving workplace performance. Part of the long-term strategy will require training professionals to upgrade theirownskill sets andfindopportunities to employ them in ways that focus on performance. Most of these opportunities should address identifying and removing environmental barriers, as Dean (1997) suggests they are the sources of some 76% of gaps between existing and desired performance. Other strategies are to create effective blends of performance-based training for gaps that truly result from a lack of skill or knowledge and then partner with supervisors and managers in ways that facilitate transfer and measurably improved job performance. Still other long-term strategies involve institutionalizing exemplary performance throughout the organization. These strategies would partner training personnel, executives, line managers, supervisors, exemplary performers, novices, and others in ways that create a culture of sustainable excellence throughout the organization.


Source: Surviving Troubled Times: Five Best Practices for Training Professionals by Villachica & Stepich, 2010

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5 best job search sites

Education | 2011.04.18 09:46 | Posted by 스마트 안전보건

These are 5 best job search sites in USA, including Indeed, Craigslist, Dice, Monster, and LinkedIn.

1. Indeed

Indeed gets over a billion new job searches every month, and many people refer to it as the Google of job searching. The site allows you to post your resume, search jobs in your area, apply to thousands of opportunities from multiple job listing sites, newspapers, corporate websites, and job boards.


It has one of the largest job listing databases on the web, and does a great job of filtering out duplicates and removing spam.

2. Craigslist

Craigslist isn't just good for finding an apartment or selling your old gear. According to a number of you, Craigslist is also great for making real personal connections with people who are hiring for positions in your area.


Your mileage may vary based on locale, but it's more likely that when you respond to the job listing you'll actually strike up a conversation with the hiring manager instead of a recruiting firm. If you do apply for a job on the site, you might want to follow these tips for applying for a job on Craigslist.

3. Dice

Dice is one of the most popular job search sites for technology careers on the Web. If you're looking for a job in tech, entry or senior level, initiate or experienced, Dice is one site that should be part of your job search.


The site has thousands of tech jobs listed from some of the country's biggest companies like Hewlett Packard, Google, and Microsoft. If you're not looking for a career in technology however, there's likely not much at Dice for you.

4. Monster

Monster is a job site that often elicits about equal parts love and hate. Many of you expressed love for Monster's massive database, but hate for the sheer amount of spam posted and how difficult it is to actually get your resume in front of someone instead of casting your net wide and applying to everything available.


The site features millions of job postings, hosts the resumes of millions more, and has mobile apps for the iPhone, iPad, and Android.

5. LinkedIn

LinkedIn is a social network designed to help professionals build a network of coworkers and associates. Recently, LinkedIn has added features like status updates and corporate profiles. While it does have job listings, its focus isn't on using them to get hired.


Instead, potential employees are encouraged to connect with the company, leverage their own professional connections, and connect with other people in their field or at the company they want to work before sending in an application.

Source: lifehacker.com

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Top 10 most popular torrent sites of 2011

Creativity | 2011.03.16 22:29 | Posted by 스마트 안전보건

As has become a tradition over the years, we present a list of the most visited BitTorrent sites of the new year. At the start of 2011 The Pirate Bay continues to pull in the most visitors, followed by Torrentz and isoHunt. Demonoid settles in fourth place thanks to a year without prolonged downtime, while LimeTorrents gets the honor of best newcomer.

What’s hot in the wonderful world of BitTorrent in 2011? At first glance little seems to have changed, as the top 3 is identical to that of last year. But moving down the list we see quite a few movers and shakers as well as a surprising newcomer.

Below we have compiled a list of the 10 most-visited torrent sites at the start of the new year. Only public and English language sites are included. The list is based on traffic rank reports from Compete and Alexa. In addition, we include last year’s ranking for each of the 10 sites.

Do you know a good public torrent site that’s not listed here? Feel free to plug it in a comment.

1. The Pirate Bay

The Pirate Bay is probably the best known BitTorrent brand on the Internet. The site was founded in 2003 and is still expanding, despite the immense legal witch hunt launched by the entertainment industries several years ago.


Alexa Rank: 76 / Compete Rank: 412 / Last year #1

2. Torrentz

Torrentz has been the leading BitTorrent meta-search engine for years. A few weeks ago the site traded in its .COM domain and switched to .EU, but this didn’t affect the site’s traffic.


Alexa Rank: 164 / Compete Rank: 927 / Last year #2

3. IsoHunt

Last year was a tough one for isoHunt, as it became the first search engine that had to implement a keyword filter provided by the MPAA. Despite this setback, isoHunt is still the third largest torrent site in terms of traffic. In 2011, isoHunt hopes to get rid of the filter through the Appeals Court.

Alexa Rank: 194 / Compete Rank: 2,154 / Last year #3

4. KickassTorrents

KickassTorrents was the fastest growing newcomer of last year, and managed to continue this upward trend throughout 2010. The site released many new features and continues to innovate, still without a single banner ad on the site.

Alexa Rank: 289 / Compete Rank: 897 / Last year #11

5. BTjunkie

BTjunkie had a pretty quiet year, which is usually good news for a site that operates in the BitTorrent niche. The only setback was the removal of the site’s front page from Google due to a DMCA complaint. As last year, BTjunkie settles in fifth place.

Alexa Rank: 299 / Compete Rank: 987 / Last year #5

6. Demonoid.me

The impossible happened. Demonoid finished 2010 with only a minimal amount of downtime, compared to weeks or months in previous years. A few weeks ago the site announced that it would move from the familiar .COM to a .ME domain in response to the news about US domain seizures.

Alexa Rank: 465 / Compete Rank: 1,647 / Last year #20

7. ExtraTorrent.com

ExtraTorrent is one of those robust torrent indexes that don’t make the news very often. In 2010 it continued to expand and the site gained two spots compared to last year.

Alexa Rank: 519 / Compete Rank: 2,208 / Last year #9

8. TorrentDownloads.net

TorrentDownloads is in the same league as ExtraTorrent, a no nonsense torrent index that provides torrents to millions of users each month.

Alexa Rank: 736 / Compete Rank: 1,119 / Last year #7

9. TorrentReactor

TorrentReactor fooled most of the tech press last year when it announced that it had bought a Russian town, one of the better PR stunts seen in 2010. On the flipside TorrentReactor seems to have lost some traffic due to a Google penalty, dropping the site to 9th place this year.

Alexa Rank: 1,088 / Compete Rank: 1,972 / Last year #6

10. LimeTorrents.com

LimeTorrents is the best newcomer of 2010 in terms of traffic, which promises a lot for the new year. The site went live half a year ago and already made it into the top 10 in this short period. It’s also a bit ironic as ‘Limewire’ got shutdown a few months ago.

Alexa Rank: 1,160 / Compete Rank: 7,127 / Last year #na

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Presentations of the year 2010

Creativity | 2010.12.31 15:12 | Posted by 스마트 안전보건

Popular presentation-sharing website Slideshare posted its annual

Zeitgeist summary Thursday, bringing some interesting data to the fore.


For instance, presentations written in Japanese have the highest average

number of slides (42), women use fewer slides than men in their presentations

and the longest presentation uploaded in 2010 is 1,937 slides long.


This year’s report also laid out some data about the 1,000 most popular

presentations on its site this year: 

  • Popular Presentations Use a Lot of Slides: The total number of slides 

    in the top 1,000 slide decks has about 63 slides per presentation.

    The average number of slides for all presentations is 19. 

  • Popular Presentations Use Few Words: Popular presentations use

    about 24 words per slide. 

  • There’s Something About Keynote: While only 2% of all presentations

    were made in Apple Keynote this year, almost 16% of those in the top 1,000

    were made in Keynote.


If you’re interested in digging deeper into what makes a presentation so good

that people want to share it, check out the most popular presentations of 2010.

Eighty-two slide Social Media for Business came in first, followed by Steal This Presentation, which is appropriately a presentation about how to give presentations.

The entire Zeitgeist slideshow is available below:

SlideShare Zeitgeist 2010

View more presentations from Rashmi Sinha.

This is retrieved from mashable.com

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Pictures of Best Western Academy Hotel

Life & more | 2010.12.23 16:02 | Posted by 스마트 안전보건

These are pictures of Best Western Academy Hotel in Colorado Springs.

This hotel is one of the best hotel I stayed in Colorado.

The price is so good as you can't imagine how cheap and reasonable it is.






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Best Christmas Decoration Houses

Life & more | 2010.12.21 22:20 | Posted by 스마트 안전보건

There are top 5 best christmas decoration houses in Fort Collins, CO.

Last night, I drove around those houses, looking and taking pictures.

These photos are from those decorated houses I stopped by.

Some of them are just mediocre, but two of houses are so good.

I could not help taking a video clip for those houses.

So, enjoy photos I took yesterday.

Locations of best christmas decoration houses in Fort Collins


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Top 5 Best iOS 4 Apps for iPhone 4

Creativity | 2010.11.21 17:52 | Posted by 스마트 안전보건

These apps are the top 5 best iOS 4 applications for iPhone 4.


Apple iPhone 4 has iOS 4 software for the users who provided absolutely free. These apps have more qualities than other apps. You can use your phone using this iOS 4 Software Update. Here in this article you can see top 5 best apps, I hope you will also like it.


1. Evernote


It is one of the best iPhone app as well as a great invention for the user. Now remember you can not, everything that has done in your life. Evernote is the entire notebook, in which you analyze the ideas and save. Snapshots, recordings and much more you can do in this software.


2. Pandora Radio


It is also one of the best iPhone app, and it is now on your iPhone. This software is looking for a lot of radio stations you may hear. You can search for favorite artists, musical place to enjoy a lot of songs.


3. LinkedIn


No doubt it is also very cool and useful app. If you are a trader then this software is absolutely right for you. You can connect with a qualified million in the whole world here. Linked In includes profiles, discussions, favorites, and invitations and much more to build your business.


4. Four Square


Four Square is also very useful app. This software can meet your daily requirements you will not find easy places. You can find your friends with easy way. They learn about common friend cal locations. This software is telling you where your friends are.


5. Twitterific


This app is also very useful for iPhone users. This social software has more features as you can connect with friends and share many things remain on the iPhone by using this software. You can look for a lot of messages and filters messages.

Read more at www.topintheworld.com




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